Horses have evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed animal into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Worldwide many products are many from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares; however, in the US they are predominately used for sport and recreation.
Abaco Barb Horses are from the Great Abaco Island in the Bahamas.
They are believed to be descended from horses from more than a dozen shipwrecks
during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Caribbean during the 15th
and 16th centuries.
Some horse breed historians also believe that the Barb horse
breed originated in northern Africa during the 8th century and Abaco
Barbs are often commonly confused with Arabian breeds. Due to their extreme isolation
on the Great Abaco Island, their bloodlines remained relatively pure, making them
an important genetic link as the first Iberian horses to reach the New World. These horses brought genetics that
were present during the Golden Age of Spain
Abstang horses were created by Michele Brown of Utah in 1990
by breeding an unrefined feral mustang with an Arabian thoroughbred. The
Arabian horse then gave birth to what is now known as an Abstang.
Because this Abstang mixes two bloodlines, their
characteristics vary considerably. Especially since Mustang horses vary greatly
in physical appearance. Abstang horses have a straight profile and rounded
croup. They are generally a smaller size horse. On average, they are around 14
hands tall. They come in many different colors.
Abstang horses are durable, sturdy, sure-footed horse. They
have a fearless attitude, are spirited, and are tough. They are fit for
endurance or rough terrain. They are often also used fo
Abtenauer Horses are a rare draft horse from the Abtenau valley, south of Salzburg in Austria.
They are the smallest variant of the Noriker horse. They have short heads and strong
necks with an average height of 15.3 hands. The average
weight of an Abtenauer horse is 1,102 pounds, lighter than most Norikers. The Abtenauer
is commonly black, chestnut, or blue roan colored coat and is a coldblooded horse
breed. It has a well-shaped head and strong legs, but is elegant in stature, has
excellent agility and balance. This breed is especially valuable for work in the
alpine mountain forests.
Abyssinian horses originated in Ethiopia and Eritrea, formerly
known as Abyssinia. They are found today along the coastline of the Red Sea and
in the Sudan. Abyssinian horses were first exported to England in 1861. The Abyssinian
is on average about 13.3 hands high and has a wide variation in color and conformation.
The Abyssinian’s coat is short and rough and special attention must be given to
this breed to keep their coat clean and free of dirt. Because of their unique hair
growth pattern, the Abyssinian can be difficult to brush. Their coat is also unique
in that it has a rosette pattern. Many breeders in England have worked to improve
this unusual pattern. They also have green eyes due to uncommon genes. Despite its
Adaev, or Aedaevskaya, horses are native to the Caspian
Depression of Kazakhstan and originally consisted of two sub-types of Kazakh
horses, Adaev and Dzhab, or Jabe, horses. However, because Adaev horses were
used extensively to improve the Jabe stock, the Adaev breed was nearly
decimated. Due to an increased interest in preserving bloodlines of the breed,
27,000 Adaev horses were gathered by breeders in 1985 to restore their number.
The breeders then worked toward refining the breed by mixing Kazakh blood with
that of Don, Thoroughbred, Alkal-Teke, and Orlov Trotters. As a result, Adaevs
are a much better riding horse today; however, they are not as well suited for the
harsh environments as the Kazakh.
They stand from 13
Aegidienberger Horses are a small riding horse from Aegidienberger, Germany, and were first recognized as a breed in 1994.
Aegidienberger Horses were developed by Walter Feldman in 1994
in response to the need for horses larger than Icelandic Horses but still small
and hardy enough to navigate difficult terrain, plus they need to be well suited
for the warmer climates of central Europe. Feldman created the Aegidienberger breed
primarily by crossing Peruvian Paso and Icelandic horses.
Aegidienberger horses generally stand between 13 and 15 hands
high. Their colors vary considerably and can be bay, black, brown, buckskin, champagne,
chesnut, dun, grullo, perlino, roan, and whit
Ainos Ponies are an incredibly rare breed of pony found only
on the western Greek island of Kefalonia in the Gulf of Pátras. Unfortunately,
tourism, poaching, and the lack of grazing land threaten them and their numbers
shrink every year.
Ainos Ponies are descendants of Pindos Ponies and they were
originally used as pack animals or transport in the mountains. Today they live
wild on the slopes of Mount Ainos.
While there have been some attempts to create breeding
programs for Ainos Ponies, there is very little local support.
They are on average height 11.3 - 13 hands tall. They have a
large head, a short thick nexk, steep shoulders, and a compact body. Their legs
Akhal-Teke horses originated from
Turkmenistan and are best known for their intelligence, speed and endurance.
The Akhal-Teke typically stands
between 14.2 and 16 hands (58 and 64 inches, 147 and 163 cm) and there are currently
about 6,600 Akhal-Tekes in the world, found primarily in Turkmenistan and Russia,
with some also located in Europe and North America.
The Akhal-Teke bloodline dates
back thousands of years in Turkmenistan when selectively bred Akhal-Teke were used
for raids and fights for the Russian Empire.
The Akhal-Teke breed has influenced
many other breeds, including several Russian breeds. There has been extensive crossbreeding
with the Thoroughbred to create a fast, long-distance race
Albanian Horses originated in
the 5th century, during the Ottoman Empire. They are a small horse (12-13
hands high) and belong to the Balkan group. Native Albanian horses came from either
the Mountain or Myzeqea plains of Albania. Albanian Horses were originally thought
to have been created by breeding Arabian horses with the local Albanian horses,
which were likely combined with Tarpan, Turkmenian, or Mongolian stock breeds.
Albanaian horses typically have
coats of Bay, Black, Chestnut and Gray. They are high energy horses, and have a
strong endurance. They are agile, sure-footed, disease resistant, and can function
in difficult terrain. In the past these horses were used more for transport and
Altai horses were developed in the Altai Mountains of Central
Asia and are highly adapted to the severe climates in the region. For many centuries,
they were bred for characteristics most needed by the mountain tribesmen and nomads,
including strong cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular, and skeletal systems. They
are best known for strong physical attributes, hearty constitutions, and the ability
to adapt to harsh environments.
On average, the Altai stand 13.2 - 13.3 hands high and their
coat colors range from chestnut, bay, black, gray, and sometimes leopard spotted.
Their coats are somewhat coarse and they have an average length head with fleshy
neck and a long and slightly dipped back. They have shorter, but properly
Alter Real Horses come from Alter
de Chao, a small town in the Alentejo province of Portugal. They were created in
1748 and have a heavy Andalusian influence. They are also derived from the Lusitano
breed, but based on mostly Spanish mares. Alter Real Horses were designed to provide
high-class horses for equestrian activities at the royal court, and in particular
for the royal riding school in Lisbon.
Alter Reals have a small head,
strong shoulders and a short body, an impressive high-stepping action, long pasterns
and strong hocks. They are high energy, intelligent and quick to learn, beautifully
elegant and impressive. They are typically 15-16 hands high and have coats colored
in bay, brown, grey and occasionally chest
Altmärkisches Kaltblut (cold
blood) horses were developed in the 19th century with a foundation stock of
Percheron, Belgian, and Shire horses. The result was a versatile, genial animal
with a good work ethic, gaining them instant recognition. Altmärkische Kaltblut
hosrse thrived until the early 20th century brought war, which took its toll on
many draft breeds of Europe.
Today they are very rare,
with a remaining population of 120 mares and 20 stallions keeping the gene pool
alive. There is an attempt to revive the breed using Belgian stallions that fit
the characteristic performance phenotype.
Altmärkisches Kaltblut horses
come in all solid colors and are 15.2 to 16.1 hands high. They have a striking
Altwurttemberg horses were developed in Germany by the
Wurttemberg Prince House, but without an obligatory breed goal. About thirty
horses from Normandy were used between 1872 -1888, crossing with English
Thoroughbreds, Holsteins, and Oldenburgs.
Eventually the Altwurttemberg horse was established. They
are a strong and beautiful horse breed but unfortunately, they were not greatly
appreciated or needed, so instead the Wurttemberg Sport Horse was developed,
and was highly prized for a time.
Altwurttemberg horses are wamb looded and are found in all
basic colors. They are 155 to 165 cm high.
After 1950 the Altwurttemberg was threatened with
extinction; however by 1988 in
America ''albino'' horses are
actually not true albinos but instead they are what the American Albino Horse
Club (now known as the White Horse Club) calls Dominant White. A Dominant White
can be any horse, Quarter, Arabian, Standardbred, etc., that has a white coat
with pink skin and dark eyes - black, brown, or blue. A true albino would, of
course, have pink eyes, meaning the Dominant White actually carries off-color
genes. Given the White Horse Club''s immaculate records, breeding for this
particular horse has become an almost exact science. Even still, the
qualification of dark eyes requires parents who carry genes for off-color
coats, thereby creating a 5 percent chance that the off-spring will carry some
American Cream Draft
American Cream Draft Horses are
the only draft horse native to the U.S.
They were developed in 1905 in
Iowa during one of the greatest declines in heavy horse use in history. The American
Cream Draft originated in the United States in the state of Iowa in 1905.
American Cream Draft Horses stand
on average 15.2 -16.2 hands high and are a medium-heavy draft horse. They weigh
between 1600-1800 pounds and a large stallion can reach up to 2,000 pounds. They
have well-muscled shoulders, a large body and a calm and quiet demeanor. They are
easy to train, strong, and eager to please people. They have a cream coat, pink
skin and amber colored eyes. American Cream Drafts are primarily used for driving
American Indian Horses (also
known as cow ponies, buffalo horse, mustang, Indian pony, cayuse, or Spanish pony)
are descended from horses brought to the Americas by Spanish conquistadors and colonists.
American Indian Horses proved
to be tough and thrived on the grassy plains of the Americas.
American Indian Horse’s registry
was created in 1961. The organization was started for the purpose of collecting,
recording, and preserving the pedigrees of American Indian Horses.
American Indian Horses generally
range in height from 13 to 16 hands (52 to 64 inches, 132 to 163 cm) and weigh between
700 to 1,000 pounds (320 to 450 kg). They may be any coat color and both pinto and
leopard spotting patterns are common.
American Paint Horses were developed from spotted horses with
Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred bloodlines. This combined both the conformational
characteristics of a western stock horse with a pinto spotting pattern.
Color patterns differentiate the American Paint Horse from other
stock-type breeds. Each horse has a unique combination of white and any one of the
colors of the equine rainbow: black, bay, brown, chestnut, dun, grulla, sorrel,
palomino, gray or roan.
The American Paint Horse Association (APHA) breed registry is
now one of the largest in North America. While American Paint Horse are known for
a colorful coat pattern, the registry has strict bloodline requirements and a distinctive
body type. To be eligible f
American Quarter Horses are one of the oldest recognized breeds
of horses in the United States. The breed originated about the 1660s as a cross
between native horses of Spanish origin used by the earliest colonists and English
horses imported to Virginia from about 1610. By the late 17th century, these horses
were being raced successfully over quarter-mile courses in Rhode Island and Virginia,
and hence received the name Quarter Horses. The Quarter Horse was bred for performance
and had considerable Thoroughbred blood as well as traits of other lines. Important
sires include Janus, an English Thoroughbred imported to Virginia in 1756.
American Quarter Horses are an American breed of horse that excel
American Saddlebred Horses originated from Galloway and
Hobbie horses imported from Britain. These two breeds were crossed to create
the Narragansett Pacer, which was crossed to the Thoroughbred in the 1700s to
produce the elegant “American Horse,” used for both riding and driving. Arabian
and Morgan blood was later added to create the American Saddlebred. The
American Saddlebred is considered the ultimate show horse. Horses are exhibited
in driving, English—most notably saddleseat—and western classes.
American Saddlebred horses averaging 15 to 16 hands (60 to
64 inches, 152 to 163 cm) in height. They are known for their sense of presence
and style, as well as for their spirited, yet gentle, temperamen
Sport ponies have been enjoyed for hundreds of years in
Europe and their stock gradually made it’s way to North America.
Through the years, American’s started their own breeding
programs to further enhance and promote them. In 1981 a North American Sport
Pony Registry was initially founded as a division of the American Warmblood
Registry. However by 1997 the number and quality of the ponies being produced
in America was large enough to warrant their own separate registry.
American Sport Ponies are notable because they look and move
like small horses and do not have physical pony traits. They are a type breed
and their registry will accept a number of bloodlines as long as they meet the
American Spotted Paso
American Spotted Paso horses are the American version of the
Peruvian Peso horse. One of the main goals for American breeders is to combine
the smooth gaits of the Peruvian Paso horse with the colorful coat patterns of
They originated with a pure black Paruvian Paso stallion
named Janchovilla who was bred to pinto mares. Of the resulting foals about 3/4
of them were spotted and all of them carried the Paso gait.
There are two different registries for this breed for
animals with different degrees of Paso blood. However, to register with either
the animal must have one purebred Paruvian Paso and exhibit the four-beat
American Walking Ponies were developed primarily as a show
horse for gaited competition. Although they have three unique gaits, they are
able to compete in seven.
They are essentially a cross between the Tennessee Walking
Horse and the Welsh Pony. As a result of its Welsh pony heritage, they also
make a good light hunter.
American Walking ponies are a relatively large pony-type (14
hands high). They have a a clean, smallish head on a well arched and muscled
neck. Their back is short, their shoulders are slightly sloped, and their hips
are well muscled.
The three gaits unique to the American Walking Pony are the
Pleasure Walk, the Merry Walk, and the canter. Both the Pleasure Walk and the
Merry Walk are f
American Warmblood is more of a "type" than a
"breed" of horse. Like most of the European warmbloods, with the
American Warmblood there is more emphasis on producing quality sport horses,
rather than the preservation of any particular bloodlines. This allows for much
diversity in the bloodlines of American Warmbloods. The American Warmblood has
been influenced by the European warmbloods, the Thoroughbred and the Arabian,
as well as some draft horse breeds.
There are two registries in the United States which
recognize American Warmbloods - the American Warmblood Society and the American
Warmblood Registry, both of which are recognized by the World Breeding Federation
for Sport Horses.
American Warmblood h
Amur Horses are a light horse breed from Siberia of the
early 19th century that is sadly now extinct.
Their bloodlines were a combination of Transbaikal (Buryat) and
Tomsk heritage; they were bred primarily for riding. The Amur was a hardy and
strong breed with a finer conformation than generally found in colder northern
regions. The breed became extinct due to crossing with many of the other
Russian breeds including Orlov Trotters, Don and Budyonny.
They had a short, thick neck, medium length back with a well-rounded
Anadolu Ponies, also
called Transbaikal Ponies, Native Turkish Ponies or just Turks, are the most
common Turkish horse breed. They are known for their speed, endurance, and
Anadolu ponies draw on
the blood of several ancient breeds, including the Arabian and Akhal-Teke, although
Anadolu bloodlines are ancient in their own right.
The Turkish people have always had a need for
this versatile native pony in farm work, as pack animals, and for
transportation. They require little care, making them easy to own almost
anywhere in the country.
They have an average height of 12.1 – 13.3 hands
and are a small horse with great strength and endurance. Their head is small
and can be refined – bo
The modern day Pure Spanish Horse is derived from very ancient
horses whose body shapes are depicted in cave drawings from at least 5000 BC in
both north-eastern and southern regions of Spain. Eventually predominating in the
southern province of Andalucía, they became known as Andalusian horses. However,
the authorities of the Spanish stud book now prefer them to be known as Pura Raza
Española (P.R.E.) or Pure Spanish Horse. There are about 45,000 world-wide.
Andalusian horses are a very beautiful aristocratic horse, with
a lovely arched neck held uprightly on a strong, compact body. The cannons (lower
legs) are short and sturdy. It has a long thick mane and tail, and the predominantly
grey or bay coat has a natural glistenin
Andean horses were developed in the harsh environment of the
Andes Mountains (above 9,000 feet) and display characteristics reminiscent of
Tibetan horses. The great altitude has created an animal with amazing lung
capacity and a thick, dense coat of fur. They are considered the Peruvian
Andean horses, with their strength, great stamina, and
well-developed sense of balance and agility, are capable of climbing up
mountains at medium speeds with ease. In fact, they can carry a 200-pound pack
up steep slopes to 16,000 feet above sea level without becoming overly tired.
They are smaller than most full-size horse breeds: they are
about 12 to 13.2 hands tall (48-53 inches, 122-135 centimeters). Typical of
Andino Ponies comes from the high peaks of the Andes in
Peru. Honed by natural selection in the tough terrain they inhabit, they are a
smart, robust, and surefooted.
are descended from the horses of Spanish Conquistadors. Over the centuries
natural selection has created a smaller, more compact animal well suited to the
local area. They are rarely found outside of Peru.
Andravida (also called the Eleia, Ilia, or Greek) horses are
a rare light draft breed found in the region of Ilia, Greece.
predominantly brown, bay, chestnut, red roan, black and occasionally grey. The
head is rectangular in shape and plain with long ears and a straight profile.
The chest is broad and heavy-set with thick muscles; the back is slightly
dipped. Their temperament is described as willing but strong. They are of
moderate height ranging between 14 to 16 hands (56 to 64 inches, 142 to 163 cm)
high with the average being at around 15 hands (60 inches, 152 cm).
The ancestors of the Andravida horses were said to be used
as cavalry horses by the Athenians in the 4th century BC as
Anglo-Arabian, or Anglo-Arab, horses ara a crossbred between
Thoroughbred (thus, the prefix "Anglo") and Arabian horses. The cross
can be made between a Thoroughbred stallion and an Arabian mare, or vice versa.
It can also be a cross between either an Anglo-Arabian and a Thoroughbred or, alternatively,
an Anglo-Arabian and an Arabian. Another permitted cross is between two Anglo-Arabians.
No matter the cross, a horse must have a minimum 12.5% of Arabian blood to be considered
France is one of the largest producers of Anglo-Arabian horses.
French Anglo-Arabian horses can trace their liniage back to two stallions: the Arabian
stud Massoud and Aslam, a Turkish horse, probably of the now-extinct Tu
or Anglo-Arab Sardinian,
horses originated in Sardinia, Italy.
When the Saracens
dominated the island of Sardinia, Arab stallions had been crossed with Sardinian
mares of smaller size. At the beginning of the 16th century those horse were used
for crosses with Andalucian stallions. In the course of the nineteenth century,
thanks to the introduction of English thoroughbreds (thus, the prefix
Modern day Anglo-Arabo-Sardohorses are quite different from those of the past. Like the French and American
Anglo-Arab horses the Sardian Anglo-Arabs have obtaining excellent results as show jumpers
and as a race horse. They are a saddle horse and light draught animal with a noble
Anglo-Kabarda Horses are russian horsese that were developed
by the cross between Kabarda and Thoroughbred horses in the 1920s and 1930s.
The goal was to produce a horse that was larger and faster than the native
Kabarda, but adapted to the climate of the northern Caucasus region of Russia
and able to maneuver in mountainous terrain.
They have a Kabarda head with Roman nose profile, straight
back, long legs, and well-developed joints.
Anglo-Kabarda Horses may have between 25 percent to 75
percent Thoroughbred blood. They are divided into three different types:
"basic," "oriental" and "massive." Horses
belonging to the basic type are of medium size with a well-shaped head and are
well muscled; those of the orie
Anglo-Karachai horses are a variety of Kabarda horse that
are bred specifically in the Karachai republic, Russia. They tend to be of the
most robust type of Kabardas horse and split off as their own breed during the
1960''s. The introduction of Thoroughbred blood was what created the
They were originated by crossing English, German, and French
Thoroughbreds with local Karachai horses. The breeding unofficially started in
the early 1870''s, but it wasn’t until the mid 20th century before the breed
Anglo-Karachai horses are 15.2 – 16 hands high. They have a
slight ram’s head facial profile. They have a straight line back, well-muscled
loin, a lovely sloped cro
Appaloosa horses are known for their colorful leopard-spotted
coat pattern. They have a wide range of body types, stemming from the influence
of multiple breeds of horses throughout its history. Each horse''s color pattern
is genetically the result of various spotting patterns overlaid on top of one of
several recognized base coat colors.
The Nez Perce people of modern day Oregon and Washington,
US, developed the Appaloosa breed. Appaloosas were once referred to by settlers
as the "Palouse horse", possibly after the Palouse River, which ran through
the heart of Nez Perce country. Gradually, the name evolved into "Appaloosa".
The Nez Perce lost most of their horses after the Nez Perce
Appaloosa Sport Horse
Appaloosa Sport Horses were created in the USA with the
intention of creating a European-style sport horse with appaloosa coloring. They
are strong, willing, tenacious and tough team player
This cross was achieved by crossing Appaloosa coloring with
the athletic qualities of the Trekehners. The result is a beautifully-colored
animal, larger and with finer lines than the original appaloosa.
Their head is erect and attractive. They display
characteristic white sclera and a speckled mouth. Their neck is long and
well-arched. Their shoulder is oblique and withers high. Their back is long
with rounded croup. They have muscular hindquarters with elegant and strong
Appendix Quarter Horse
Appendix Quarter Horses are the first generation cross
between a registered Thoroughbred and an American Quarter Horse. They are
registered as appendix but not initially eligible for a full AQHA registration.
The cross began in Texas and quickly took hold when the
horse racing industry brought Thoroughbred bloodlines into the Quarter Horse
Association. Initially they were met with resistance by board members, but they
relented to the cross with Thoroughbreds that held Quarter Horse type
the years and selective breeding the resulting cross is a larger animal (15 –
17 hands), with more refined features. They are found in black, chestnut, grey,
bay, dun, roan, palomino, and buc
AraAppaloosa horses are a refined version of Appaloosa in many
ways. The main registry for the Appaloosa horses was established in an effort
to protect and develop the Appaloosa. Because of claims of similar ancient
origins, the registry allowed the Appaloosa to be crossed with pureblooded
Arabians. The AraAppaloosa of today is said to be a re-establishment or
preservation of the best examples of the Appaloosa breed found, namely, in
early American Indian tribes.
AraAppaloosa horses are known primarily by their coat; which
needs to be one of the basic Appaloosa color patterns. They are between 14 and
15 hands high and have the same general
conformation of the Arab: refined head, stamina, and elegance.
The Arabian''s conformation and type have been selectively bred
for longer than any other breed of horse.
The Bedouins of the Arabian desert were dependent for survival
on their Arabian horses. While they valued the beauty of their horses, they were
equally adamant that their horses were strong, with deep chests, straight legs,
large joints and good lungs to carry them across large stretches of their desert
homeland. Historical figures like Genghis Khan, Napoleon, Alexander The Great and
George Washington rode Arabians.
The prophet Mohammed, in the seventh century AD, was instrumental
in spreading the Arabian''s influence around the world. He instructed his followers
to look after Arabians and treat them with
Although this cross breed was met with some resistance, some
Haflinger breeders thought that Arabian blood would refine the breed and
increase their athletic ability.
The first three generations were approached with the goal of
creating foals that improved the original breed. The breeders were successful
and the resulting crosses displayed a definite refinement and an increase in
After many years of cross-breeding, the physical
characteristics of the Haflinger breed persist, but have been slightly refined
into a more elegant mount. The result is a small (13.5 – 14.5 hands) riding
horse with rectangular shape and Arabian features.
They are approachable and kind; easy to handle with a
Arabo-Friesian horses are known for their excellent
disposition as well as endurance and toughness. They are willing to please and
work, are obedient, and are known for their excellent movement characteristics.
Arabo-Friesians are a cross between Friesians and Arabians,
and they are a relatively new breed. During the Spanish invasion of the
Netherlands in the 16th and 17th centuries Arabian blood was first introduced
to the Friesian which resulted in a very athletic horse. In the 1960’s breeders
introduced additional Arabian in order to enhance strength and endurance. The
result is a horse with the good looks and behavior of the Friesian with the
robustness of the Arabian.
Arabo-Friesian horses generally
Araboulonnais horses are a relatively new French breed
developed by crossing of Arabians to large, robust Boulonnais horses.
The origin of the Araboulonnais began late in the 20th
century. It was thought that the beauty and pep of Arabians would blend
wonderfully with the gentleness and soundness of the large Boulonnais. The
resulting cross was an animal that was more refined than the Boulonnais but
much larger and heavier than the Arabian. They were created for riding or
trekking and they prove to be energetic, athletic mounts with a tendency to be
resistant to disease.
They average 15.2 – 15.7 hands high. Generally they are
grey. They are gentle, Intelligent, and tough.
Aralusion, also called the Hispano-Arab, horse is a
relatively new breed achieved by crossing the high energy Arabians with the
noble Andalusians in equal parts. These are two of the older and most acclaimed
breeds on the planet, so their cross is a logical one. The resulting animal is
beautiful with high action, notable athletic ability, and fine confirmation.
Aralusians are animated and spirited with the strong Arabian
motion and drive and the presence and determination of Andalusian horses.
Ardahan (also known as Malakin) horses are the only heavy
breed of horse native to Turkey. They are a between Ardennes, Percheron, Shire,
Clydesdale, Orlov horse with native Russian horses. About 150 years ago they
were brought to the eastern parts of Turkey by immigrant Turks from the
Caucasus. When they reached eastern Turkey, the resulting crosses were then
crossed with Anadolu horses.
They have a short muscular neck, stand at around 13-14
hands, and are generally black or gray. They are a willing working horse and
mostly used for draft work or farm animal.
Ardennes, or Ardennais, horses are a multi-talented horse
commonly used in endurance riding, general riding, and work activities. They
are one of the oldest breeds of draft horse, and originate from the Ardennes
area in Belgium, Luxembourg, and France.
Their history reaches back to Ancient Rome, and throughout
the years blood from several other breeds has been added to the Ardennes,
although only the Belgian breed had any significant impact. They are a direct
descendant of the pre-historic horses whose remains were found at Solutre;
primitive features such as the skeletal formation of the head, with its
distinctive, squared-off nose, are still evident in the modern breed. Ardennais
horses were known to both Julius Caesa
Arenberg-Nordkirchen are small riding horses from north-west
Germany. They can be black, chestnut, bay, or gray, and are used for
sport/hobby horses (general riding and jumping).
Germany does not have a long tradition of small horse
breeding; the only native small horse is the Dülmener. From the early twentieth
century ponies and small horses were imported, mostly from Great Britain, and
some private individuals started breeding from them. Arenberg-Nordkirchen
horses were started in 1923 by the then Duke of Arenberg as a semi-feral herd
on his estates in Nordkirchen, near Münster in Westphalia. They were based on
Dülmener horses, from which he intended to create a small and elegant riding
horse. His stock was small, wit
Argentine Anglo horses are from Argentina. They are well
known for their use in equestrian sports. They are lightweight horses that
exhibit a refined appearance and excellent performance capabilities. They are
also energetic, intelligent, and obedient.
In the 1960s Argentine Anglo horses were developed by
crossing English Thoroughbred stallions with Argentine Criollo mares to produce
the lightweight polo horses with great fitness and agility.
Argentine Anglos are medium sized, have expressive heads, long
necks, inclined shoulders, an long and elastic back with a muscular croup;
solid legs, strong bones and joints; plus small, hard hooves. They are
generally gray, bay, or sorrel and are around 15 hands tall.
Although the Argentine Polo Ponies are not considered a
breed, Argentina is recognized the world over for their fine polo horses, a
cross between Thoroughbred and Criollo blood.
They are bred to be quick, strong, agile, and to handle the
rigorous life of a polo horse with ease. Combining the speed and grace of the
Thoroughbred with the tireless work ethic of the Criollo creates horses that
look forward to and thrives on hard work.
Association of Poly Pony Breeders was founded in 1984 in an attempt to preserve
bloodlines. Breeding is controlled closely by Argentine breeders and only
proven horses are bred to retain their good qualities. They are bred to retain
their type rather than to
Argentinian Modeponies (also known as Bergmann Ponies and
Argentinian Fashion Ponies) have the same foundation as Argentinian Falabella
horses and are bred for beauty and intelligence. However they are more refined
and larger than Falabellas. While most are found in Argentina, small
populations can be found in the Netherlands and France.
On average they are 6.8 – 7.8 hands tall. They are tough and
durable. Their head is large and straight. They come in all colors. They tend
to be calm and friendly and are mostly used as Pit ponies or Pets.
Ariègeois Ponies, also known as Merens ponies, are a
pure-black rare mountain pony native to the Pyrenees and Ariègeois mountains of
Northern Spain and Southern France. Thought to be of prehistoric ancestory,
these ponies were originally domesticated for use in mines and hauling timber.
These handy ponies were also indispensable to the mountain farmers of the area
and valued as hardy war mounts.
They are robust, kind, and easy to care for. Physically they
are very similar to Dales ponies or Friesian horses. It is believed that during
the Muslim invasion local stock was also enhanced by Arabian blood.
Ariègeois breeders generally raised their animals by
allowing them to graze freely in herds. Foals are born in the spri
Arravani horses are from Greece and are in danger of
extinction; there are only about 200-300 of them left in the world today.
Arravani horses are influenced by Egyptian Arabians, Medern,
Greek Thessaliern, Roman horses, and Turkish Arabian bloodlines. They are
personable and comfortable to ride.
For thousands of years they were used as agriculture workers
by local farmers and for transporting loads over stony mountain paths. The
introduction of motorized vehicles saw a decline in their use that much of the
stock was sold off as meat to Italian suppliers.
Asiatic Wild Horse
Asiatic Wild (also known as Przewaslki’s, Takhi, and
Mongolian wild) horsesare a rare and
endangered subspecies of wild horse native to the Steppes of central Asia. Most
wild horses, such as Mustangs or Australian brumbies, are descended from
domesticated animals; however, Asiatic Wild horses have never been domesticated
and are the only known truly wild horse in the world.
Organizations from around the world have successfully bred
and re-introduced these horses into their natural Mongolian habitat as well as
the Chernobyl area. The total number by the early 1990’s was over 1,500.
Asiatic Wild horses are a stockier build than the
domesticated mongolian horses but with shorter legs and a heavy built n
Asils are Arabian horses from the Asil region in Khuzestan.
Rock carvings of horses have been found in the area that date back 5,000 years.
Like many different types of Arabians, strains were developed by different
families and breeders. They are raised for racing, transportation, and
Asil horses have an average height of about 14.3 hands and
are built for speed and stamina; they are quick and efficient. Their traditional
colors are chestnut, gray, or bay. They are Spirited, intelligent, and bold.
Astrikan (also known as Kalmykskaya, Kalmyk, or Kustenair)
horses are members of the Mongolian equine group.They are bred in the territory
along the Volga and Ural rivers and are in danger of becoming extinct. They
were brought by the Kalmyk people came to Russia from Dzungaria in the 17th
century. They were described as plain, medium-sized horses that are very tough
and possess speedy gaits. They look similar to Kirgiz horses, but tend to be
coarser with longer legs.
Selective breeding of these animals ended around 1943 and
many crosses have modified the bloodlines considerably. In 1986 the local
University of Cattle Breeding attempted to determine their numbers and located
an isolated heard in the eastern reg
Asturcón, also known as Asturian, Horses are a pony from the
Asturias region of northern Spain. They are an ancient breed and their ancestry
is not known, although most likely they are a cross between Sorraia, Garrano,
and ancient Celtic ponies. They are usually brown or black, with minimal white
markings. They stand between 11.2 and 12.2 hands (46 and 50 inches, 117 and 127
Asturcón ponies have a naturally ambling gait that is
comfortable for the rider. As a result, a large portion of their population was
taken to Ireland to produce the Irish Hobby.
These ponies are hardy and resourceful, and able to survive
in the harshest areas. They are obedient and easily domesticated, and are used
for riding, drivin
Augeron Horses were developed in Pays d’Auge ( an area in
Normandy France). They are also known Caen or Virois horses and they were
developed from the Percheron breed sometime around the 19th century.
In 1904, Augeron horses were sold in Argences and Bayeux of
Lower Normandy. People bought them for their homogeneity, beauty and high
The Société hippique du trait augeron, or Augeron Horse
Society, was formed in 1913 by breeders in Auge to record these horses in a
breed registry. The society wanted to preserve the breed and make it distinct
from its ancestors, the Percheron.
They are light gray; tall, strong, well-built; and
energetic. They are 158–170 cm (15.2–16.3 hands) tall.
Australian Draught Horses was developed from the
crossbreeding of four recognized pure draught horse breeds which were in
Australia since the colonial days: Clydesdale, Percheron, Shire, Suffolk Punch.
The result is a hardy, strong draught horse with a good temperament.
The roots of the Australian Draught Horse date back to the
c.1854 importation of stallions and mares of various English and Flemish cart
breeds to Australia. Van Diemen''s Land (now Tasmania) was at the forefront of
breeding cart and farm horses with the part played by the Van Diemen’s Land
Company. This company also imported Shire Horses which were later imported to
Western Australia and South Australia in the late 1830s.
Bullocks did most of the heavy
Ponies were first introduced to Australia in 1803. By 1920,
a distinct type had emerged there. A stud book was opened nine years later
detailing the standards of conformation for the pony. The basic stock for the
Australian Pony is the Welsh Mountain Pony of Type A. Shetlands were introduced
to give solid constitution and strength. Thoroughbred, Arab, and Hackney were
Australian Ponies have a show quality head: slightly concave
with alert ears and dark eyes. Their neck is nicely rounded, their shoulders
slope back and their hindquarters are well-rounded and proportioned. Their tail
is set high and gaily carried, their leg bones are flat showing strength. They stand
between 12 and 14 hands hig
The Ancestors of the Australian Stock Horse were imported in
small numbers at the end of the 18th century from South Africa and are believed
to be of Arabian and Barb descent. Eventually more horses where imported from
England; mainly Thoroughbred and Arabian horses that were tough enough for the
rough Australian conditions.
Thoroughbreds became very popular at the beginning of the
19th century for horse racing. The horses that developed had a good
temperament, were tough and reliable, and able to work under saddle and in
harness. They were used to clear timber, plough the land and herd sheep and
cattle. These horses were known as Walers (named after New South Wales). Walers
were sought after by the cavalry due to their
Austrian Warmblood horses are, unsurprisingly, warmblooded
horses from Austria. They are the result of combining of multiple excellent
The Austro-Hungarian Empire was known for its horse breeding
programs which were based on a number of imperial stud farms. The role of these
farms was to produce farm horses for the citizens, riding and carriage horses
for the nobility, cavalry mounts and artillery horses for the military.
Although the former empire is also famed for producing the
Kladruber and Lipizzaner, prominent among these stud farms were those located
at Mezohegyes and Bábolna. The former was founded in 1785, the latter was
purchased by the government in 1789, and both are
Autre Que Pur Sang
Autre Que Pur Sang horse (AQPS) loosely translates to
‘other-than pure blood’ and is a classification used for race horses in France
that are not of pure English Thoroughbred lineage. They must have 75% English
Thoroughbred and less than 5% Arabian blood to participate. The rest of the
bloodlines can be a mix of regional French saddle horses (like French Saddle
Horse and Anglo-Arabian). These horses are run both on flat tracks and in
steeplechase races. This mix is not as swift as the English Thoroughbred,
although they prove to be sturdier and to possess more endurance. They often
excel in obstacle races and longer distances against an open field.
AQPS racing horses were developed around the end of the 19th
Auvergne horses (Cheval d’Auvergne) are robust and hardy
light draft horse from the Auvergne region of south central France. They are
used mainly for trekking.
They have been crossbred several times throughout history,
with several distinct breeds sharing the name "Auvergne horse". A
small riding horse known as the "half-blood of Auvergne" was
primarily ridden by the cavalry at the beginning of the 19th century, but has
since disappeared. Other work horses of Auvergne were used as a means of
transportation before the advent of modern roads. The work horse was crossbred
to become a light draught horse and subsequent ancestor of the modern Auvergne
horse. It was used for varying field work by the inhabitants of t
Auxois horses are closely related to Ardennes horse and have
been bred specifically for immense size since the start of the 20th century.
Their origins are uncertain, although some sources say that
their ancestors were Burgandy horses, a heavy breed ridden by knights of the
middle ages. Breeding of the modern Auxois began in the 19th century in the
Cote d’Or and Yonne regions of France. The foundation horses were Percheron,
Ardennes, Boulonnais, and Northern Ardennais.
Auxois horses are one of the rarest French draft breeds in
the world. After World War II, with mechanization on the rise, the number of
Auxois horses declined significantly. In fact their numbers became so low that
Avelignese are heavy horses found throughout Italy. They are
beautiful and hardy enough to handle most any challenge.
Avelignese horses are one of the few breeds referred to as
surefooted styles. These surefooted horses can endure traveling through the
desert and in extreme temperatures without any issues. They can be utilized for
equestrian vaulting and also for therapeutic riding purposes as well. They have
been bred with a unique format so that you know which horse came from where.
For example, if the horse is from Austria, they will bode a brand that is just
the letter “H”, whereas the ones from Italy will bode an “HI”.
Avelignese horses are calm enough to be utilized as a riding
Azerbaijan horses are a mountain-steppe racing and riding
horse named after the geographic region where the horse was originally
developed: Azerbaijan in the Caucasus. They have long been native to the area
and are well adapted to herd life.
They were developed as a saddle-pack horse and favored as a
war horse due to their robust character. Over the years they have been enhanced
with both Arabian and Tersk horses.
They are known for an unstable temperament (due to largely
wild herding instincts) and a natural pacing gait. The average speed by running
of Azerbaijan horse is 1600 metres in 2 minute, 66 seconds
are from the Azores islands,
Portugal. They have a
wedge-shaped head and a straight or slightly rammed profile, with a wide
forehead and a small mouth section. Their neck is strong and goes into a long
shoulder. Their chest is deep, but narrow. Their hindquarters are somewhat
poor. They generally are brown.
Azores ponies are wiry, noble horses with a fiery temperament.
They are used in agriculture, but they are also used as children''s ponies.
Azores ponies are very similar to Balearic ponies. Azores
ponies are a very rare breed, whose origin is not fully understood. It is
assumed that horses or ponies from Morocco were imported into the 19th century,
and that these took a not unim
Azteca horses are medium-sized, light riding horse. They arernan extension of the Spanish horse. Although a majority of the horses in Mexicornare still of direct Spanish stock, the Azteca has become very popular in thernfew years that it has been an established breed.
Standing 14.3 to 15 hands high, the Azteca is of standardrnwarmblood conformation.They have a fine, dry head with straight or subconvexrnprofile, small ears, and beautiful eyes. They have a well-placed, beautifullyrncurved and heavily muscled neck. They have long, sloping shoulders and a moderatelyrnpronounced instep. They have a short, strong back and a long, slightly fallingrncroup. They are found in all solid colors except piebald and tigers.
Baguales are wild horses that roam the vast Patagonian
grasslands and forests of Argentina and Chile. They are a sturdy and robust horse;
they can tolerate the highly variable climate of their native region.
Most likely they evolved during the 16th century, with the
introduction of Andalusian horses in Argentina by the Spanish conquistadors. It
is believed that some of the horses either were released or had escaped,
forming feral herds, which wandered freely in the steppes and grasslands.
Today, a few hundred Baguales horses remain with in Torres
del Paine. However, the National Park authorities consider these horses as
invasive and have ordered for their removal. Several research teams and
Baguio Light Horse
Baguio light horses and Baguio ponies are Philippine horses
known for their elegance, hardiness, and disease resistance ability.
Baguio horses and ponies descended from breeding stock
brought by the Chinese, Brazilian, and other South American traders.
Subsequently, the dealers abandoned their animals when they left the Philippine
Islands. The small horses and ponies that evolved from these equine breeds
adapted to the native climate and became physically sound and tough.
During the early 1700s, these horses along with other equine
breeds flourished in the country. However, lack of selective breeding programs
caused their numbers to decline gradually. Arabian and Spanish bloods were
added to refine th
Bahr-El-Ghazal are a variety of Dongala horse from Chad in
the area of Kreda and Ganaston. They are slightly taller than Dongala horse.
They are a light horse with a reputation for poor quality. A lack of good management
and poor local conditions has both contributed to their lesser quality. There
are estimated to be around 10,000 Bahr-El-Ghazal horses left.
Baikal are a small horse from the Lake Baikal region thatrnborders with Mongolia. Baikal are not considered a breed in itself, they are morernof a type, used for all needs of the region. They have been a part of the arearnfor as long as people can remember.
Baikal horses are used for light work, transport, andrntourism where a visitor can rent horses along with a house. They are a toughrnsmall horse that is capable of handling rough trails and tough weather.
Baise horses (also known as the Guangxi) are a pony-sized
horse native to the Guangxi region of China, where the climate is mild and
horse breeding has long been common practice. Like other Asian breeds (the
Mongolian horse in particular), they thrive at high altitudes and roams freely
when not working.
They have obvious physical ties with Mongolian animals. Guangxi''s
mild climate has long favored horse breeding. Bronze statues from 206 to 25
B.C. have been found that look almost exactly like this animal in confirmation.
Baise horses are an average height of 11 to 11.2 hands (44
to 46 inches, 112 to 117 cm). They are smaller than other breeds in northern
and western China. Their head is he
Baixadeiro are a small horse from the marshlands of Brazil. They are an extremely old breed that looks
somewhat like the Pantaneiro Horse of the area, but they are much smaller. They
are dismally under-developed, perhaps because they inhabit lands that are
virtually wetlands most of the year.
Today, they are almost extinct but formal breeding programs
have been set up to continue the lines as these animals have been used in the
area for centuries.
Baikal are a small horse from the Lake Baikal region that
borders with Mongolia. Baikal are not considered a breed in itself, they are more
of a type, used for all needs of the region. They have been a part of the area
for as long as people can remember.
Baikal horses are used for light work, transport, and
tourism where a visitor can rent horses along with a house. They are a tough
small horse that is capable of handling rough trails and tough weather.
Bakhtiari horses are native to Pakistan and have distinctive
turned in ears (similar to those of the Marwari horse). They are believed to be
related to Barb horses and are known for their strength, endurance, and fine
Today their bloodlines have been diluted to the point there
are very few of pure lineage, making this an incredibly rare breed.
They are on average height 14 hands tall, have a medium
sized fine head with a straight or slightly convex profile. Their eyes are
large and expressive. Their neck is long and muscular. Their back is short and
strong. Their legs are fine and strong with good joints and defined tendons.
And their feet are very hard and strong.
Baladi (also known as Egyptian Horses) are an Egyptian
horse of questionable bloodlines. They are no longer considered an individual
breed as they once were. There has been significant “Arabization” of the
indigenous horses of Egypt, due to the short distance between Arabia and the
Nile. The resulting horses come from combinations of Arabian bloodlines and are
unable to be registered. Plus an influx of English Thoroughbred blood was added
for increased speed and size, but because of their lack of papers these animals
are shunned by breeders and tribesmen. Although they are still magnificent horses
and often faster over short distances, (but not as hardy over distance as the
Bali Ponies are an ancient breed now living on the
Indonesian island of Bali. Its roots are unknown, although one theory is that
ponies of ancient stock were brought to Indonesia by the Chinese in the 6th
century. If this theory is true, the Bali pony would owe much of its roots to
the Mongolian Horse. In addition to the Mongolian horse, it is known that some
Indian stock were taken to Indonesia (although it is unknown exactly which
breeds), and the Dutch also brought various eastern breeds to the country
during the 18th century. Therefore, the Bali pony likely has been influenced by
both the Mongolian horse, and various other eastern breeds.
The Bali Ponies are quite hardy and self-sufficient,
Balikun horses are a rare light draft breed from the
Xinjiang region in northwest China. They are well adapted for harsh environment
and used mainly for transportation. They are able to survive on steppe hills
and and pasture with harsh temperatures as low as 40 degrees below zero.
Balikun horses developed from Kazakh and Mongolian horses;
however, over 200 years of selective breeding has made the Balikun horse a
breed of its own.
Balikun horses stand, on average, from 12.2 to 13.1 hands.
They have heavy heads with short, thick, muscular necks. Their withers are
often rather low, and the backs are short, flat, and very strong. Their
shoulders are straight, but muscular. Their croup is sloped, with their tail
Baluchi (also known as Beledougou, or Banamba) horses are
native to the Baluchistan, Sindh and Punjab Provinces in Pakistan. However,
they are most likely related to the West African Barb horses of Mali, Africa.
They share the same ancestors as the Waziri, which is a smaller horse breed
known for their strength, good structure, and stamina.
Baluchi horses are on average about 14 hands high. They have
a medium-sized fine head, straight or slightly curved profile, large eyes,
tulip ears that turn inward and touch, a long muscular neck, pronounced
withers, a short strong back, and fine strong legs with good joints and defined
tendons. There are found in bay, chestnut, or gray.
Ban''ei horses are from Hokkaido, Japan, where they are used
for unique draft races, called the Ban-ei Keiba races, in which the horse pulls
a heavy sledge (called a Sori). These races, which are only conducted at four
racecourses in Hokkaido, are run by such heavy horses bred from stock such as
the sturdy Percherons, Bretons and Belgians, which pull a steel sleigh carrying
a heavy load, together weighing from about half a ton to one ton (including
jockey, sledge, and harness), along a 200-meter separated straight track with
The dynamic Ban-ei Keiba races, which enjoy a large
following, originated as a competition among farmers and locals at least 55
years ago at festivals in the areas in Hokkaido and Tohoku.
Banat horses were a moderately large-framed horse from the
Timus Plateau of Romania; however, they are now extinct.
They were developed by crossing Nonius, Noric, Ardennes,
Oldenburg, and Lipitsa horses. They became an important animal to the local
people and were used primarily for agricultural work.
Unfortunately, with the emergence of modernization
techniques for farming, the Banat, among other draft type animals fell into
Bandiagara horses are a mid-sized, docile horse breed from Mali and Niger in Africa. They are a Barb type with fragile and lovely facial features. For the most part, this they are suited to the climatic harshness of the area.
On average they stand between 14.3 to 15 hands high. Their neck is short and thick with an ample chest and shoulder. Their back is long with rounded croup. Their tail is low set. Their legs are think and sinewy. And their hooves are hard and small.
Banker horses are descendants from domesticated Spanish
horses that were brought to America in 16th century by explorers and abandoned
on the Outer Banks of North Carolina which is where their name
"Banker" was derived. Banker horses were originally domesticated;
however, since they were abandoned and left to fend for themselves, they''ve
Banker horses can be found on the Outer Banks barrier
islands of North Carolina''s coast. They reside on Corolla Island, Currituck
Banks, Ocracoke Island, Shackleford Banks, and in the Rachel Carson Estuarine
Sanctuary. They feed on bulrushes, sea oats, poison ivy, and Saltmarsh
Cord grass. Because of their poor diet, the horses on the Outer Banks are
smaller than domest
Barb horses are a light riding horses from the Maghreb
region of northern Africa. There are several varieties of barb horses including
Algerian, Moroccan, and Tunisian. They are also the foundation breed of the
West African Barb and the Spanish Barb which was developed in the United
Bardigiano horses, also known as Bardigiano Ponies, are from
The first horses that populated Bardi were brought during the
Roman Era. During the centuries, the breed developed as a mountain horse; in the
15th century, there were attempts to make it more gentle by cross-breeding it with
Arabian-Friulian horses, thus obtaining a horse very similar to the one of today.
They almost became extinct after the First World War. In 1977,
a "Regulation for the selection and for the Genealogic Book of the Bardigiano
horse" was approved. This sets the breed standard and had the aim of making
Bardigiano horses were used in the past for agricultural work
in impervious areas and even m
Basuto Ponies are from South Africa. They are derived from
horses imported by Dutch settlers in 17th century.
Basuto Ponies arrived in South Africa in 1653, when four
horses were introduced to the Cape area by the Dutch East India Trading
Company. The exact breed of these horses is unknown, but they may have been
Arabian, Persian, or similar to the Java Pony. They were upgraded later with
Arabian and Persian blood.
These original imported horses became the founders of the
Cape Horse, which became extremely popular and especially gained an admirable
reputation during the Boer Wars. The Cape Horse and the Basuto probably were
originally the same horse, and then with continual Thoroughbred and Arabian
Batak Ponies are from Indonesia originating in Central
Sumatra. They are thought to have descended from Mongolian and Arabian horses,
and have continually been infused with additional Arabian blood to improve their
quality. They are selectively breed by the Indonesians, and are often used to
upgrade the quality of horses and ponies on nearby islands. The Batak Pony was
once used as a sacrificial animal in religious ceremony.
They are slender, but still strong and sturdy. They are
generally well-conformed. Poor forage is a major contributor to conformation
abnormalities. The only other breed of the country which is of better quality
is the Sandalwood Pony. The ponies have a fine head with a straight or slightly
Bavarian Warmblood (also known as Bayerisches
Warmblut) horses are from southern Germany. They were developed from an
older Bavarian heavy warmblood breed called the Rottaler. Since mechanization
in the mid-20th century, the Bavarian Regional Horse Breeders'' Society has
concentrated on producing a riding horse for the Olympic disciplines and recreational
riding based on other European warmblood bloodlines.
The easiest way to recognize a Bavarian Warmblood is by the
brand on the left thigh, which is a crowned shield outside the letter
"B". All colors are permitted, though dark, solid colors are
preferred. The ideal height is between 158 and 170 cm tall at the withers
Belgian Warmbloods are bred distinctively as a show horse
that excels in dressage and jumping arenas. They are basically the mixture of
many breeds with the lighter Belgian agricultural horses as their base. In the
1950s these agricultural horses were mixed with Gelderlanders for greater size
and strength. In the 1960s Selle Francais and Hanoverian were introduced. They
gave the Belgian Warmblood greater athletic ability and freedom of movement.
The Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arabian horses introduced to the breed conformation
They stand around 16.2 hands high. Their head is alert and
full of quality, mainly due to its Anglo-Arabian influence. Their withers are
well placed and their shoulders are of good
Bhirum Ponies (also known as Nigerian Ponies) are a dwarf
horse from the northern regions of Nigeria. They are thought to be a descendant
of the little known Poney Mousseye of Cameroon. They are also thought to come
from Barb horses which were brought to Nigeria by Nomads. These animals were
bred to local ponies and the resulting animal became the Bhirum Pony.
They are a large pony breed, although they are occasionally
referred to as small horses. They are incredibly versatile and can resist the
heat of their environment.
Bhotia Ponies are bred and raised in various regions of
India such as Darjeeling, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Nepal. They are used as a pack
animal and for riding.
Their head usually has a pronounced jaw line, straight
profile, small ears and eyes. Their neck is a muscular and a bit short, their
chest is deep, their shoulder is straight. Their ponies have powerful
hindquarters, and short, strong legs with good joints. They stand at 12.2 hh,
they are usually bay or gray, but may be any solid color. They tend to be
narrow in build.
Black Forest, also known as Schwarzwalder Kaltblut, Horses
come from the Black forest, Germany. They were well known as the pearl of The
Black Forest back in their day and have derived from the cold bloods that were
residing in the region during the Middle Ages. They came about as a result of
breeding a Haflinger and a Noriker. Later on, the breed would be closer
introduced to the Brabant breed in a poor attempt at making them taller, which
was not successful whatsoever. Once the twentieth century arrived, some were
enabled to breed with any stallion they wanted to. Currently, there are fifty
state approved stallions in the area and over seven hundred registered mares
alike. They have a great reputation in local areas and are consi
Blazer Horses were developed in the 1950s and 1960s in
northwestern United States. They can trace their ancestry to one chestnut
stallion named Little Blaze, who was foaled in 1959. Little Blaze was bred and
owned by F. Neil Hinck, an American horse trainer from Bedford, Wyoming. The
descendant of Mormon pioneers and Danish horsemen, Hinck came from a ranch
family and had extensive experience with most breeds of the day. Little Blaze
was combinationof American Quarter Horse and Morgan Horse with some Shetland
Pony and Thoroughbred.
Blazers are known for being versatile at any sport
competition and having gentle and intelligent dispositions. Blazer horses do
not exceed 15 hands (60 inches, 152 cm) at full maturi
Boerperd, or Boer Ponies, are a tough horse that can still
remain their cool and be kind enough to allow for kids to ride, they are hardy,
enduring, and have been used for harness work, endurance, and for riding people
of all ages and sizes. They are found in Johannesburg, Swaz, Lesotho, and Cape
Town, South Africa.
Boerperd’s stand at around fifteen hands in full grown size.
They are generally bred in any color, typically one solid color rather than
mixtures or patterns. They are a fit and lean breed with good shoulders and
hard feet, they also have great joints and a shorter back, which aids their
strength and ability to carry passengers for hours on end without struggling.
Bose Ponies are from the Bose and HechirnPrefecture-Guangxizhuang region of China. They are best known for performingrngeneral riding and work.
Bose Ponies are bay colored. They are on average 11.1 torn11.2 hands tall. Their head is dry, straight, and slightly weighty. Their profilernis concave and their jaw is wide. Their ears are small and alert. Their neck isrnmoderately long and their withers are moderate. They have a short back andrntheir croup is rounded. They have a bushy, but thin, mane and tail. Their legsrnare short and strong with good joints. Their hooves are firm.
Bosnian Ponies, found in Bosnia and Herzegovina, are a
member of the group of horses known as the Balkan breeds, and are thought to be
descended from a cross between the Tarpan and Asian Wild Horses.
Beginning in the 1900s, they have been selectively bred
through a government-controlled breeding programs. The principle breeding
center for many years was the Borike Stud in Bosnia. The state controlled all
breeding stallions, while mares were privately owned. During the 1940s three
stallions, Agan, Barat, and Misco, were used to improve the breed. Agan and
Barat resembled the Asian Wild Horse type, while Misco was a lighter type.
Until the Bosnian War, there were strict standards,
Boulonnais horses come from France. They are legendary
creatures that were brought from France by Julius Caesar during his preparation
to invade Britain. They were once known for roaming many lands such as Calais,
Belgium, Eterpigny, and along the English Channel in the United Kingdom. Most
of the heavier draft breeds were bred in the Northwestern areas of France.
They are often referred to as the Thoroughbred of the draft
breeds. This was as a result of their elegance that they received from the
bloodlines of some Arab and Iberian horses. While they are recognized as being
derived from the seventeenth century, some feel there were in fact two various
styles of the breed. One was noted as the heavier draft version a
Brabant horses are from Belgium, and can be found all over
Germany as well as the Netherlands, France, and more specifically set inside
Brussels. They are used for harness work and for shows or competitions alike.
Their unique appearances make it easier for them to do very well inside the
competitive circuit and they have a very friendly personality to boot.
Brabant horses have quite a history coming from significant
dignitaries using them on a regular basis for being bred for use in shows. It
has been noted that the Brabant horses were used to carry those involved in the
Norman Conquest of Britain during 1066. They are a very large horse variation
that was reliable and dependably used on missions and in the mil
Brandenburgers are a well-balanced horse with a lively
temperament, an easy to get along with character and little tendency to
Horse breeding was first mentioned in documents in the
Brandenburg March in the 15th century although at that point, there was not a
uniform or standardized breed. The development of the modern Brandenburger
sport horse during the mid-20th century was achieved by utilizing Trakehners,
Hanoveranians, and English Thoroughbreds. The national and state stud of
Neustadt/Dosse, which was founded by King Frederick Wilhelm II in 1788, had
substantial influence on the development of the Brandenburger.
Following reunification with the former German Democratic
Brazilian Sport Horses (Brasileiro de Hipismo), were
developed specifically for competition in 1970. They were developed from
Andalusian, Thoroughbred, Trakehner, Hanoverian, Holsteiner, Oldenburger,
Westphalian, Irish Hunter, Selle Francais, Argentine-Anglo and Belgian
Warmblood horses. They are popular in the US and Europe and have successfully
completed recent Olympic Games. In 1996 four Brazilian Sport Horses, Aspen,
Adelfos, Cassiano Joter, and Calei Joter, competed in the Atlanta Olympics and
in Syndey in 2000.
They are intelligent, light, agile, quick, athletic and
large (over 16 hands high), and lively. They have a sweet disposition, solid
work ethic, endless ability, calm, brave and balanced
Breton horses come from France but can be seen along the
British side of the English Channel and most often in the land of Rennes.
Primarily they are raised for light or heavy drafting. They are sweet, easy to
maintain, and full of energy. They can be extremely handy on farmlands and are
very loyal to their owners as well.
They were one of the first types of horses considered to be
mountain animals. In the Middle Ages they were bred into two various breeds.
One was considered a heavier style noted as the Sommier, and the other was the
Rossier, which was a lighter horse style created just for the primary use of
riding. During the nineteen hundreds, the breeders began to make ones that were
British Spotted Pony
British Spotted Ponies have been known to exist since prehistoric
times - they appear in cave paintings in France dating back around 20,000 years
and have also featured in Egyptian pictures dating from 1400 BC. They were at
one time feral in the British Isles and their spotted coat pattern was their
natural camouflage as they roamed the heaths and forests of ancient Britain.
Through history Spotted Ponies have been regarded as
somewhat magical and mystical and were subsequently highly regarded by Royalty
and noblemen. During Roman times, some of the mounts of the more important
Officers were spotted horses of great elegance; and during the dark ages many
spotted Ponies were sent as gifts between the Royal Famil
Brumbies are free-roaming feral horses in Australia.
Although they are found in many areas around the country, the best-known
Brumbies are found in the Australian Alps region. Brumbies have been seen in
the Man from Snowy River movies and the opening of the 2000 Sydney Olympic
Brumbies are the descendants of the horses that were
transported on ships from England with convicts and first settlers. The initial
horses included "Capers" from South Africa, Timor Ponies from
Indonesia, British pony and draught horse breeds, and a significant number of
Thoroughbreds and Arabians. Many of those early horses escaped or were left to
run free. Over time the developed into their own breed, much like America
Buckskin Horses are not a specific breed, they are horses
that have a common color - tan or bronze coloring with black points. A true
Buckskin should be the color of tanned deer hide with black points. Shades may
vary from yellow to dark gold. Points (mane, tail, and legs) can be dark brown,
or black. Ponies and horses showing predominance of draft horse blood are not
Buckskins developed a strong reputation as a sturdy working
horse in the frontier of the western United States. They were highly regarded
by the cowboys of the old west, Buckskins were used for pack, harness, and
The American Buckskin Registry Association was founded in
1962, it opened its registry to not only
Bucovina horses are an extremely rare cross between Romanian
Hutzel (Huzel) horses with an infusion of draught horse blood. They are suitable for riding, draught work,
and logging. They retain the toughness, economy, and tractability of Hutzel
Their cost is roan coat color which most like comes from
Ardennes ancestr. Which is not a surprise since Ardennes were introduced into
Romania after the Second World War to regenerate local stock.
Budyonny horses originated in Russia and are known for
having a iridescent coat. They received their name from Marshall Budyonny of
the red army. They can be found all over the Russian Federation; inside
Ukraine, Belarus, Moscow, Rostov, and along the Lake Ladoga.
Budyonny horses were created by combining the Thoroughbred
Don horses. They were utilized for all sorts of purposes as both work horses
and for leisure uses as well. They are an incredible cavalry horse; built for
speed and durability.
They are the perfect combination of strength with an
attractive appearance. They are noted by experts as being rather athletic and
coordinated and also mild tempered.
Buohai horses are native to the Northeastern part of the
Shandong Province, China, near the Buohai Sea and the Yellow River. They have
been found in that area for at least 2700 years, but are originally from Mongolia.
In 1962 the Chinese government established a cross-breeding
program designed to improve the local stock. Attempts with riding horses were
unsuccessful and created animals too light for heavy agricultural work. Later
Ardennes and Soviet Heavy Draft blood was introduced and the resulting animals
was classified as the Buohai breed in China.
In 1974 a breed association was formed and the first animals
were registered as pureblood under the Buohai name. There is lot of variety
Burguete horses (also known as Caballo Burguete, Caballo de
Raza Burguete, or Aurizko Zaldia) are from the Navarre region of northern
Spain. They are listed in the Catálogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado de Espana in
the group of autochthonous breeds in danger of extinction. Their name is
derived from the town of Auritz/Burguete.
Burmese Ponies, also known as Shan Ponies, originated in the
Shan state of Eastern Burma, where they are bred today by local tribes. They
are similar to Bhutia, Spiti, and Manipuri ponies of the Himalayan Mountains,
suggesting these breeds have a similar origin, most likely deriving from the
Mongolian horse and other Eastern breeds.
Burmese ponies may reach 13 hands high, and are brown, bay,
chestnut, black or gray in color. They are not particularly pretty horses,
having been bred for function rather than looks. The head usually has a
straight profile, the neck is muscular. The back may be long, and the croup is
sloping. The ponies do not have very pronounced withers, and a rather upright
shoulder, creating a shor
Buryats are one of the smallest horses in Siberia and share
ancestors with the Mongolian breed, although they tend to be taller. They are native
to a climate that is incredibly harsh, (there are only about a 100 days a year
above freezing temperatures in parts); and as a result they are very tough.
Throughout the years severe (and often cruel) training
methods combined with selective breeding and an intense natural environment has
created an almost indestructible, fertile animal with a long life span.
Since 1897 Thoroughbred stallions (and some trotters) have
been brought to the area to improve the breed. However the fertility and
toughness of the breed tends to be compromised by the influx o
Busak posavec (also known as Croation Pasavac, Posavina,
Hrvatski Posavic , and Busak Posavec) horses comes from the flood plains of the
Sava River in Croatia. Currently their numbers are very low.
On average they are around 15.2 hands high. Their head is
noble and broad. Their ears are concave and elliptic. Their hooves are broad
and flat. They are found in black, grey, and bay.
They are bred for light agriculture work and vegetation
Byelorussian Harness horses were developed Dole, Ardennes,
and Brabancon horse breeds. The Dole influence was the strongest. Long-term
inter breeding of various generations of crosses created a breed that is
very suitable for work in wooded areas with swampy and sandy soils.
They are a medium-sized horse with the characteristic
conformation of a harness horse. Their head is not large, their forehead is
wide, their neck is well muscled and average in length, their withers are
average in height and length, their back long, flat and often slightly dipped,
their loin is flat and short, their croup is wide, nicely rounded and well
muscled with a normal slope, their chest wide and deep. Their limbs are clean
Calabrese Horses originated
in Calabria and were derived from a group of Arabian horses imported from North
Africa. During the Bourbon period, they were crossbred with Andalusian horses. In
more recent times, they were bred with Saleritano horses and English Thoroughbreds,
which increased their size. Every now and then, in order not to lose their original
traits, they are bred with Arabian horses.
Calabrese horses are
easy to train, strong, vivacious, and docile. They have excellent balance, fast,
and good jumpers.
Content and photo source: Agrarian.org
Camargue horses arre one of the oldest breeds of horses
known. They are indigenous to the harsh wetlands of the Camargue region of
Southern France. They have resided there as far back as prehistoric times.
Researchers believe that the Camargue horse is a descendent from the ancient
Solutre horse. Archeological evidence of this has been found to a considerable
extent in the Burgundy region of France. Camargue horse is also closely related
to Spanish breeds from the northern part of the peninsula.
Births in the wild occur from April until July. The horses
are gathered up at the age of three and trained. One of the techniques which is
taught is neck reining, allowing the rider to keep only one hand on the reins. On
Camarillo White Horses are famous for their brilliant white
The story of Camarillo White horses start in 1921 when
Adolfo Camarillo purchased a 9-year-old stallion named Sultan at the California
State Fair in Sacramento. He then went on to breed Sultan with Morgan mares at
his ranch in California up until his death in 1958. His daughter Carmen then
continued breeding and showing the horses at parades and events until her death
in 1987. As per her will, the horses were then sold at public auction.
Four years after the horses were auctioned off in 1987,
their number had dwindled down to 11. In an attempt to save the breed and bring
attention to it, the Camarillo White Horse Association was founded in 199
Campeiro horses originated from Spanish and Portugese horses
that were introduced into Brazil by sea Captain Alveres Nunes during his
journies from Santa Catarina to Paraguay. Their first expedition was in 1541
and Cabeza de Vaca landed with soldiers, seeds, cattle, and 46 horses. The
first official records of horses in Santa Catarina were in 1728. During the
19th century the Campeiro was crossed with Thoroughbred and Arabian blood to
refine their looks and improve performance.
In 1976 the Brazilian Association of Campeiro Horse Breeders
was founded and the herd book opened in 1985.
On average they are 13.9 to 15.1 hands high. Their movement
is elastic with a marchadore and trote step, there
Campolina horses originated in Brazil in 1870 when a farmer
named Cassiano Campolina bred a Brazilian mare of Barb ancestry with a pure Andalusian
stallion. Later he further refined his horses with Anglo-Norman, Clydesdale,
Holsteiner, American Saddle Horse, and Mangalarga Marchador horses.The result is the largest of the three gaited
Brazilian breeds. Their temperament is docile, but active and proud. They are
used for pleasure and trail riding, dressage, and driving.
The Campolina is a gaited breed, with an ambling gait. Their
gaits are a smooth, regular batida or a picada, the first characterized by a
longer time of movement of the bipeds in diagonal and the second only in
lateral, both with four-beat movemen
Canadian Horses, originally called the French Canadian
Horse, was introduced to Canada in July 1665 by King Louis XIV of France.
Initially, King Louis XIV sent 12 of his best horses to reward the men who had
gone to settle "New France". France continued to import these horses,
and by 1763, their number was close to 13,000. However, as exporting the horse
continuously increased for the Boer war in Africa, plantations in the West
Indies, and to the United States for stage lines and the Civil War, by the
1860s and 1870s, there were fewer than 400 Canadian Horses with fewer than 20
registrations per year. To preserve the remaining of the breed and keep the
horse from going extinct, a stud book was produced in 1886. The decrease of
Canadian Rustic Pony
Canadian Rustic Ponies originated in Canada, particularly
the Saskatchewan and Manitoba provinces.
They were developed by Dr. Peter Neifeld of Manitoba,
Canada. They were developed by crossing Heck horses from the Atlanta Zoo in
Atlanta, Georgia with Arabian horse-Welsh pony crosses.
On January 23, 1989, the Canadian Rustic Pony Association
was formed, incorporated under the new Canadian federal Animal Pedigree Act,
also known as Bill C-67. Prior to this, since 1978, Canadian Rustic Ponies had
been registered through a registry based in the United States, and as of
September 1989, 72 ponies had been US-registered. These ponies were eligible to
become double-registered under the Canadian and US regis
Canadian Sport Horse
The farm horse of the Canadian countryside is the base stock
for the Canadian Sport Horse. After the First World War, Thoroughbred stallions
from England were made available to cross with the countryside stock, producing
a more refined horse. In 1926, the Canadian Hunter, Saddle and Light Horse
Improvement Society was organized. In 1933, a second organization, The Canadian
Hunter Society was incorporated and a Stud Book was maintained. The two
societies merged in 1970 and renamed the society to include the term
"Sport Horse," a name which appropriately distinguishes this highly athletic
During the First World War, and as the direct result of
Canada''s reputation for breeding quality horses, a large perce
Cape horses were extremely popular through the Boer Wars,
but very little is known about the status of the Cape Horse breed today. They
originated in South Africa and greatly resembles Basuto Horses, however they
Horses first arrived in South African when they were imported
by the Dutch East India Trading Company in 1653. The first breeds were believed
to be Barb and Arabian descendants shipped from the Island of Java, and they
were the forefathers of both the Cape Horse and the Basuto.
Gradually, the Cape Horse was refined by introducing
Thoroughbred and Arabian blood. Through these crosses, the breed became larger
and sportier than its Basuto brethren. Despite its huge popularity as a ba
Carolina Marsh Tacky
Carolina Marsh Tackys are working horses. They have an
uncanny ability to work inside water and even deep, swampy conditions along the
shoreline. They are relatively small horses (13 to 15 hands), they are ideal
for carrying around children and also for riding practices as well. They are
generally put to work on farmlands to herd cattle.
Carolina Marsh Tacky history goes back hundreds of years.
Coming from a Spanish breed of horses, the Carolina Marsh Tacky breed has more
recently been a part of the culture in South Carolina. Spanish explorers
brought theses animals over the eastern shoreline many centuries ago, as far
dating as the sixteen hundreds. Even utilized during the American Revolution,
and for workers
Carthusian (also known as Carthusian-Andalusian, and
Carthujano) horses originated in Spain. They were created when the Zamora
brothers purchased a stallion by the name of El Soldado and bred him to two
mares. A colt and a filly were produced, and the colt (a dark gray) was named
Esclavo and went on to become the foundation sire of the Carthusian breed.
Esclavo went on to produce many offspring, which were sold to breeders in
Jerez, Spain. One group of mares sired by Esclavo around 1736 were sold to Don
Pedro Picado, who then gave part of them to a group of Carthusian monks in the
settlement of a debt and sold the rest to Antonio Abad Romero where they were
absorbed into the main Andalusian breed. The stock given to the monks were
Caspian horses are small originally from Iran. Although generally
no more than 12 hands (1.22 metres) high, they are nevertheless considered to be
a horse rather than a pony.
They are a similar build to Arabian horses, and they are extremely
hardy, with very dense bone and hard feet that rarely need shoeing. They can take
long strides and are able to keep up with normal-sized horses while walking, trotting,
or cantering, despite their smaller stature. The most common colors are bay and
black, though they may also be grey, dun, or chestnut.
Although the Caspian horse may have had a long history in its
own country it did not really become known to the rest of the world until it was
"discovered" by an American-bor
Castillonais (also known as Cheval Ariegeois de Castillon, cheval
du Biros, or Saint-Gironnais) horses are an ancient breed of small riding horse
from the Ariege departement of southwestern France.
Castillonnais horses originally were bred for cavalry,
agriculture, and driving. They declined in population during the 20th century,
and almost became extinct. In 1980, a group of supporters began to work to save
the breed, and a breed association, now called the Association Nationale du
Cheval Castillonnais d''Ariege Pyrenees (ANCCAP), was formed in 1992. The breed
was officially recognized by the French Ministry of Agriculture in 1996. The
French government, breed association and a regional conservation group all now
Catria Horses are
from Monte Catria, Italy, and neighbouring areas (Central Appennines), spread over
the provinces of Pesaro, Ancona and Perugia.
with the people of Maremma in Tuscany, chiefly with those involved in charcoal-burning,
explain the introduction and the influence of the local equine population of Maremagno.
In the post-war years the herds of horses diminished considerable, but the original
population, derived from the maremmano breed, held on in mountain areas which were
only good for pasture land from wild horses.
After a period of
many crosses with various bloodlines, in 1974 the Special Co-operative Agency of
Catria took over the management of the local studs, controlling in
Cavallo Romano della Maremma Laziale
Cavallo Romano della Maremma Laziale (or "Roman horse
of the part of the Maremma that is in Lazio") are native to the Lazio
region of Italy. They are an ancient breed, but they were officially recognised
only in 2010. They are now one of the fifteen indigenous horse breeds of
limited distribution listed by the AIA, the Italian breeders'' association. The
Lazio region has assigned it the conservation status of “at risk of erosion”.
Their population numbers about 800, of which most are in the comune of Monte
Romano in the province of Viterbo; a herd of approximately 200 are at Ponzano
Romano in the province of Rome, and others are in the province of Rieti.
DNA testing had shown that the traditional working horse of
Cerbat Mustangs are beautiful and strong horses that are
used for riding or as an event horse in competitions. They have excellent
endurance and are very strong. They are smaller in size than some breeds, but
still remain durable and willing to please. They well known for their unique
ability to easily reproduce at very late ages. The Cerbat mares can still
reproduce well into their twenties, which is a great strength considering some
horse breeds only live up until they are twenty. Most of them of have a
vertebrae with five lumbar, which is also unusual.
Cerbat horses are a part of history, much like the rest of
the Spanish routed variations. They have been commonly referred to as Spanish
Mustangs and are considered rat
Chahou Post Pony
Chahou Post Ponies are from Tibetan Autonomous County of
Tianzhu, Yongding, and Gulang County, Ganshu Province, China. They are highly
resistant to disease and incredibly hardy due to their extreme habitat.
They are of moderate size (average height of 12.1 – 12.8
hands). Their back is of medium length, and they have a short girth. They are
found in black, chestnut, grey, bay, and dun.
They are known to be dependable, willing, and tough. They are
used as pack animals and for transportation.
Chaidamu Ponies are from the Qinghai Province of China.
Their numbers are very low and there is very little information available about
They are moderately-sized ponies (average height 12.6 – 12.8
hands). Their Head is wide and short. Their bodies are stong and round with
short legs. They come in black, chestnut, and grey. They are known to be easy
going, sociable, and kind. They are used for riding, sports, and as draught
Chakouyi horses are a very little-known and ancient breed of
light horse (technically a pony) that comes from the Silk Road area of China.
On average they are 12.2 – 13 hands high. Their face is
medium sized with a straight profile and large eyes. Their next is medium
length; their loin is short with well-rounded abdominal area. Their croup is
sloped and well muscled. And their legs are short with well developed joints
and little hair. They are found in black, grey, and bay. Plus often have an
elongated star on their forehead.
Cheju Ponies are from Cheju Island, off the southern coast
of South Korea. They are used for riding and light draft. Horses were among the
most important animals used for agriculture and military purposes from the
period of tribal states (before the first century B.C.) through the Choson
dynasty (fourteenth and nineteenth centuries).
The Cheju native pony may have existed since prehistoric
times, although no clear record confirms this. During the Korya dynasty
(1276-1376), Mongolians governed Cheju and introduced their horses to the
island. One record shows that 160 breeding horses were brought from Mongolia to
Cheju and used for improving the native ponies. Since that time, horses raised
on Cheju have been exp
Chilean (Chilean Corralero)
Chilean Corralero horses are related to Spanish horses that
brought to Peru by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia in 1541. In 1557
Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, the new governor, arrived in Chile with 42 horses of
the famous caste of the Guzmanes and Valenzuelas, marking the beginning of the
Chilean horse breed. A pure Chilean breed appeared by the beginning of the 19th
century, and the Chilean Corralero appeared by the end of the 19th century.
They are the oldest registered Native American breed, the
oldest registered breed of Iberian origin, the oldest registered horse breed in
South America and the oldest registered stock horse breed in the Western
First they were used by the Spanish
Chincoteague horses comernfrom the Eastern coast of the United States, the islands of Chincoteague and ssateague off the coast of Virginia and Maryland. They are well known forrntheir hardiness and willing to succeed. Additionally, they are raised forrnriding and harness work (they are good at carry burden long distances).
It''s not clear how thernChincoteague horses evolved, but most believe that they are related to 17 rabian horses that swam ashore from a spanish vessel that had capsized off therncoast, around 1600. Once on the islands they became stunted under the harshrnenvironment. To keep from starving they ate coarse salt marsh cordgrass, merican beachgrass, thorny greenbrier stems, bayberry twigs, seaweed and evenrnpoison ivy
Choctaw horses are the direct descendants of horses that
traveled with the Choctaw Indians on the "Trail of Tears" in the
1830s from the southeast U.S. to the reservations in Oklahoma.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced removals of Native
American nations from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern US to an
area west of the Mississippi River that had been designated as Indian
Territory. The forced relocations were carried out by various government
authorities following the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830. The
relocated people suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while en
route, and more than four thousand died before reaching their various
destinations. The removal included members of
Cleveland Bay horses originated in England during the 17th
century, named after its coloring and the Cleveland district of Yorkshire. They
are the oldest established horse breed in England, and the only non-draught
horse developed in Great Britain.
Cleveland Bay horses are well-muscled, with legs that are
strong but short in relation to the body. They are always bay in colored,
although a few light hairs in the mane and tail are characteristic of some
In the middle ages in the north east of England bay colored
horses were bred for pack work, which was the preferred way of transport of the
travelling salesmen, often referred to as chapmen. So these horses were called
large draught horses derived from farm horses of Clydesdale, Scotland. They were developed by the farmers of Lanarkshire,
through which the River Clyde flows. The old name for Lanarkshire is Clydesdale.
They were originally used for agriculture
and hauling, and they still are used for draught purposes today. They have also
been used to create and improve other draught breeds.
They were bred to meet not only the agricultural
needs of these farmers, but the demands of commerce for the coal fields of Lanarkshire
and for all the types of heavy haulage on the streets of Glasgow. The breed soon
acquired more than a local reputation, and in time, the breed spread throughout
the whole of Scotland and northern Eng
Colonial Spanish horses were at one point very popular and
were prized by Spanish explorers in the fifteenth century. They were brought to
America by explorers, and were allowed to roam. Later they became popular in
the western states and were cross bred to create a larger animal. However; by
the mid-nineteen hundreds, they were thought to be extinct. A man named Robert
E. Brislawn developed the Spanish Mustang Registry and the entire breed was
saved from that point on.
Currently, there are a few thousand horses registered with
the Spanish Mustang registry. Historically, they have been known to have the
ability to travel very far and not sustain any health ailments at all, which is
quite remarkable. In their native Spain
Colorado Ranger horses are from the Colorado High Plains in
the United States. They are descended from two stallions imported from Turkey
to Virginia, US, in the late 1800s. These stallions were then bred to ranch
horses in Nebraska and Colorado, and in the early 1900s the two stallions who
every registered Colorado Ranger traces to, Patches #1 and Max #2, were foaled.
The breed was championed by rancher Mike Ruby, who founded the Colorado Ranger
Horse Association in 1935.
By 2005, more than 6,000 Colorado Ranger horses had been registered.
Colorado Rangers may be any solid color or carry leopard spotting patterns.
Pinto coloration and American Paint Horse breeding are not allowed, nor are
draft horse and pony
Comtois horses are draft horse that originated in the Jura
Mountains on the border between France and Switzerland. It is believed to they
descended from horses brought by the Burgundians of northern Germany to France
during the fourth century. In the Middle Ages they were used as war horses. In
the 19th century, other draft horses such as the Norman, Boulonnais, and
Percheron horses were bred with Comtois horses, and more recently Ardennes
horses were used to produce a stronger horse with better legs. Today, they are
second only to the Belgian draft horse in number in France.
Connemara Ponies are Ireland’s native pony originally from Galway.
Their popularity is extensive worldwide. They are a historic breed that is considered
to be “sure footed and hardy”. Connemara ponies have a calm temperament, staying
power, intelligence, soundness, and athleticism. They are considered to be a wonderful
modern riding mount for children and adults alike.
The exact origins of Connemara Ponies are difficult to decipher
and are immersed in myth and fable.The general
consensus is that the history of the breed started with the arrival of the Celts
in Ireland. The Celts traveled across Northern Europe, through England, Scotland,
and Wales, arriving eventually on the West Coast of Ireland over 2,500 years ago.
Corsican (also known as U Cavallu Corsu or u paganacciu or Cheval corse) horses are small horses indigenous to the Mediterranean island of Corsica, off the coast of south-eastern France.
There are no equines in the fossil record of Corsica, and for that reason it is believed that humans brought the first horses to the island, along with a number of other animals. The Haras Nationaux set up a remount depot on the island in 1861 for the purpose of producing light cavalry horses and mules. When the military ceased to breed horses there, the animals remaining were bred by local people and reverted to a homogeneous phenotype due to what essentially became natural selection.
Corsican horses are small, standing between
Costa Rican Saddle
Since 1850 breeders of the Costa Rican horse have paid morernattention to the selection of breeding stock. Because the horse population wasrnsmall and inbreeding became a concern, a few stallions were imported from Spainrnand Peru. The result is the Costa Rican saddle horse.
The breed was founded by Janitzio, foaled inrn1955, a loudly marked sabino stallion. In 1972 a breed club (ASCACOPA) wasrnestablished, and in 1974 the breed registry was initiated.
The minimum height for males is 14.2 1/2 hands (148 centimetres 58 in)) and 14.1 1/2 hands (146 centimetres (57 in)) for females. Their headrnprofile is straight or slightly convex. Their neck is arched, ample at the basernand tapered toward the head. Their chest is deep and w
Criollo horses are native of Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil, and
Paraguay. They may have the best endurance of any horse breed in the world next
to Arabian horses. In fact, due to a low basal metabolism, they may be a better
long-distance horse than Arabians in prolonged races over a week in duration
with no supplemental feed. Because of their hardiness and stamina they are very
popular in its home countries.
The word criollo originally referred to human and animals of
pure-bred Spanish ancestry that were born in the Americas, or, in Portuguese
crioulo, to animals or slaves born in the Americas. In time, the meaning of the
word would simply come to refer to native breeds of the Americas.
Croatian Coldblood (Croatian: Hrvatski hladnokrvnjak,
German: Kroatisches Kaltblut) horses are medium-heavy draught horses developed
The history of the breed dates back to the first half of the
19th century, when it was begun to crossbreed local warmblood mares in central
Croatia with imported quality stallions of Noriker breed. Some other breeds
were involved later, like Ardennes, Brabant, and Percheron. At the beginning of
the 20th century the breed was widespread toward east (Slavonia) and west
(Gorski kotar and Istria regions).
The typical Croatian Coldblood ranges from 150 centimetres
(14.3 hands; 59 in) to 160 cm (15.3 h; 63 in) high. Stallions can weigh up to
850 kilograms (1,870 lb). Its head i
Cuban Paso (or Cubano de Paso) horses originated from
Spanish horses brought to the new world by conquistadors. They are best known
for their elegant and comfortable pace. They are a strong but elegant horse
used for transportation in Cuba.
Their head is proportional to their body with a straight
profile which at times can be slightly convex or concave. Their forehead is
wide, their ears are medium sized and mobile. They have a strong neck and high,
oblique muscular croup and a straight and strong back. Their tendons and joints
are well defined. Their legs are strong and structured. Their average height
lies between 1.45 and 1.50 m. Their most frequent color is brown although every
color is found.
Cuban Pintos (or Pinto Cubano) horses originated from
Spanish horses brought to the South America by conquistadors. After the Cuban
revolution in 1959 a herd of pinto mares was gathered in the area around Manicaragua,
in the Cuban province of Santa Clara, for their genetic improvement. Afterwards
on the ranch La Guabina, located in the province Pinar del Rio, their muscular
development was improved interbreeding them with Quarter horses and a British
pinto horse called Bony.
They are found in only tobiano and overo. Their average
height lies between 1.44 and 1.52 m, their head is proportional to their body
with a straight or slightly convex profile and medium sized or small ears. Their
neck is quite long and w
Cumberland Island (a barrier island off the state of
Georgia’s, US, southeast coast )is one of a handful of places on the East Coast
that are home to bands of feral horses. The horses on Cumberland Island may
have similar ancestors to the Chincoteague/Assateague ponies, which are thought
to have been either shipwrecked or abandoned there by Spanish explorers in the
Plantation owners, various military activities, and influxes
of pleasure horses brought by the island''s more recent residents blended into
the population over the centuries, resulting in a horse that''s still very
tough, but not as stubby and fuzzy as its cousins to the North. It''s not
unusual for the Cumberland horses to reach 15 hands (5 f
Czech Warmblood (Czech: Cesky Teplokrevnik) horses are warmblooded
sport horse from the Czech Republic. They were in existence by the time of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire (1876-1918). In the 19th century they were influenced
by Spanish and Italian horses, and later by breeds such as Furioso, Gidran,
Nonius, and Przedswit horses.
Czech Warmblood horses are robust, powerful horses with
strong bones. They have a strong neck on an elegant body, a broad, long back
and good hooves, though they are sometimes flat. Their mane and tail are very
thick. They are also relatively long-lived, unpretentious and relentless horses.
They are willing and teachable with a very good temperament. Most are black,
chestnut, bay, or dar
Dales horses come from the Pennines in northern England.
They received their name by the famous Yorkshire Dales.
Dales horses are related to Pennine Pony that were cross
bred with Friesian horses. Scots later cross breed them with Scottish Galloway
horses. The resulting horses had increased speed and were better all around
athletes. They continued on to be bred with many other horses, such as the
Clydesdale, Yorkshire, Norfolk Terrier, and Welsh Cob stallions.
Dales horses are used for riding purposes for children to
adults and for harness work as well. They were involved in trotter races around
the globe and can currently be found mostly in Europe. They are bred in the
United Kingdom, Irel
Danish Warmbloods, formerly know as the Danish Sports Horse,
are large-framed horses from Denmark. They were developed by crossing Frederiksbork
horses with Thoroughbreds. The mares resulting from this were then bred with
Anglo-Norman horses, Thoroughbreds, and Trakehners. This and selective breeding
produced a Danish Warmblood. Danish Warmbloods are the youngest of all European
Danish Warmbloods are similar to Thoroughbreds but they have
a more substantial build. They are known to be very cooperative, intelligent,
alert, and sociable horses. They are courageous and have an excellent
temperament. They are also described as having a good, free action, and are
eager to perform.
Danube Delta horses are a feral breed that are found in and
around the Letea Forest of Romania. It is documented that 300 to 400 years ago
the ancestors of these horses were brought by the Tatars to the north of the
Danube delta. The collapse of communism in 1989 along with the nation’s economy
led to farms closing and releasing the horses into the wild. As a result, there
are roughly, 3600 of these horses live in the Danube Delta and 500 in the Letea
Danube Delta horses are considered to be either large ponies
or small horses. They come in black, bay or dun and have a robust muscular
structure with long slender legs. They have an attractive head with a straight
profile. The average height is 13.2 to 14.
Over many centuries ponies were allowed to run freely on
the high moorland of Devon in the south west of England. These ponies were well
adapted to the harsh climate. As the trade route between Exeter and Plymouth
became more important the native ponies came in contact with the many different
horse breeds that travelled on that road. They also were influenced by Arabian
and Barb horses brought back by Crusaders. During the Industrial Revolution the
Dartmoor Ponies were crossed with small Shetland Ponies in order to produce a
breed small enough to work in the mines. Unfortunately this led to a decline in
the popularity, and population, Dartmoor ponies. They were crossed with Welsh
Mountain Ponies, Polo Ponies, and Hackneys to save t
Datong horses are are native
to the Datong River basin in the northern Qinghai Province of China; where
their history dates back 4000 years. They are considered to be related the
fabled Longma or Dragon horse.
References to the Dragon
Horse appeared first under the reign of King Mu and have been immortalized in
ancient Chinese art. They were said to have 2 small, bony projections on their
forehead that resembled horns. The Datong horse can be born with theses same
bony projections (calcium-like deposits on the temple to small horns
behind or near the ear). Today this is
considered a flaw and horses born with them are not bred.
Datong Horses have a gentle temperament and excellent
Deli ponies arre native to the island of Sumatra in
Indonesia. They are closely related to Batak Ponies -both were developed in the Batak hills. They
are most likely named from the large numbers of ponies exported from the port
of Deli. They were first exported to Singapore, Malacca, and Penang, and from
there spread they out across Malaysia.
It is believed that the first horses in the Malay
Archipelago arrived several hundred years ago, either by Hindu invaders from
the west or merchants from Pegu and China. It is very probable that the Shan
Ponies, native to Burma and bred by its hill tribes, were imported to the
highlands of Northern Sumatra where there was open country. From there, these
Desert Norman Horse
Desert Norman horses are essentially a smaller version of
the Percheron breed. Development of Desert Norman horses began in La Perche, a
district of Normandy southwest of Paris, France - one of the oldest
horse-breeding areas in the world. In 732 A.D., Arabian horses abandoned by
Moors after their defeat in the Battle of Tours, were crossed with the massive
Flemish stock and from this cross came the Percheron type which has endured for
During the Crusades, further infusions of Arab blood were
made. In the early 1800s the French Government''s Stud at La Pin introduced
further Arab blood into the Percheron breed by covering selected mares with two
outstanding grey Arab sires. Now all contemporar
Djerma horses are from Western Africa and the middle of the
Niger. They originated from Barb and Dongola horses. The name Djerma comes from
the tribes people of Djerma. To own a Djerma horse, in Africa, is considered a
sign of wealth. These horses are held in high esteem in Africa especially by
the tribes people. Their owners adorn the animals with colorful fabrics,
fringes, braids, etc. The riders adorn themselves, as well. These horses can be
seen "decked out" in parades festooned with the royal colors of red,
burgundy, purple and blue.
They are dark colored -usually brown.
Their build is light. Although they are small they are fine
runners. Because they are smaller and have a good temperament, some are
Dole Gudbrandsdal (also known as Dolahest or Dole) horses
originated in the Gudbrandsdal Valley near the North Sea coast of Norway. It is
likely that the Friesian played a part in the breeding of the Dole. The
Friesians traded heavily with Britain, Norway, and the Rhine Delta during the
period from 400 to 800 A.D.
The Dole horse of today is found in two types: a heavy work
horse and a light draft horse (the cold-blooded trotter). The difference
between the two types has been greatly reduced in recent years due to
interbreeding between the types. This interbreeding is now becoming very common
and the breed is becoming very uniform.
The heavy type of Dole horses are tested for pulling power
and trotting w
Don horses come from Russia. They are the spawn of one of
the most famous horse styles to come from the early eighteen hundreds, the
Cossacks, well known Russian warhorses that were built and bred for being
strong, tempered, and very good during a battle. They however, were originally
designed to be a smaller horse, but as time progressed they were made much
larger. In fact, they were given blood lines from Arab styles as well as
Karabakh versions to make a larger, more impacted horse. Quickly, they became
recognized as one of the most popular breeds in the Russian military. Today
they are well known for being resilient and able to take care of themselves.
Don horses are used for riding and harness wo
Dongola (also known as Dongolah or Dongolawi) horses
originated in the Sudan in the Dongola Province, Egypt and Eritrea. It is also
thought that they descended from the Iberian horses that were taken to Egypt
from what is now Algeria, in the 13th century.
They are taller than Arab horses, but related. They have a
fiery temperament like the Arab and lots of spirit. They have large, long heads
which tend to be narrow, a convex profile, flat crops, poorly attached loins,
and thin legs. Their chest is flat and high. They are a deep reddish bay, black
and chestnut with white markings on the face, lower legs and tail. They tend to
be 15-15.2 hands high. Much of this is from poor breeding management. Some of
Dosanko horses, also known as Hokkaido washu, are a popular
Japanese breed of horse. It is believed that Dosanko horses were brought to
Hokkaido, Japan, by fishermen from Honshu during the Edo period (1600–1867).
They were used for transportation, but were left in Hokkaido when the fishermen
returned home in autumn. The ponies were expected to survive in very harsh
weather, in a land with very little vegetation, covered with snow, which is how
the Hokkaido pony developed its exceptional enduring strength for which it is
Unlike the Nanbu breed, of which the Hokkaido pony is
considered to be a descendant, and which no longer exists, the Dosanko is the
most plentiful of the remaining ancient
Drum horses were originally used by the Queen of England for
her ceremonial band. They had to be large and sturdy enough to carry large
kettle drums during any type of pageantry. This meant that they were required
to carry a great deal of weight through crowds of people. The mounted drummers
needed their hands free to play, so they controlled their animals via reins
attached to their stirrups.
They are an elegant heavy horse that utilizes the finest
examples of the shire, Clydesdale, and gypsy cob breeds. On average they are 16
In the US drum horses are favored more as riding and
competition horses, both mounted and driving. They make sturdy, athletic mounts
with a level head.
Dülmen Ponies are the only remaining pony of German origin
that has always lived in completely natural conditions.
Their bloodlines date back more than 600 years in
Westphalia, Germany where there have always been pockets of land for them to
roam. Over time their territories were shaped by the urban growth, until the
mid 19th century when the Duke of Croy had them rounded up and taken to a
Dülmen Ponies are hardy and robust. They are generally 12 to
13 hands high. They have a short stout neck with a compact body.Their legs are short and and their
hindquarters are steeply sloped. They are found in chestnut, black, bay, and
They are good natured, intelligent, and eas
Dutch Harness, or Tuigpaard, horses are a warmblood type of
fine driving horse that has been developed in the Netherlands since the end of
World War II. Their studbook is kept by the Koninklijk Warmbloed
Paardenstamboek Nederland (Royal Warmblood Horse Studbook of the Netherlands)
or KWPN. They are based on native Groningen and Gelderland horses, which were
formerly indispensable in agriculture and transportation services. Strict
selection procedures and a clear breeding aim enabled breeders to produce a
refined, high-stepping horse within a few decades. While with 40 sires and
fewer than 2,000 broodmares the population is not large, Dutch Harness Horses
are highly recognizable. In the past few years, a handful have come to North
Dutch Warmblood horses are exceptional sport horses that have
recently been prominent in the international equestrian. Some of the Dutch Warmblood
superstars include Calypso, Next Milton, Big Ben, Ampere, Ommen, Zucarlos, Linky,
Eastern Sunrise, Pascal, Ideaal and many more.
Dutch Warmblood horses are sport horses that have evolved from
Dutch Gelderlander and Groningen horses. Gelderlander horses come from the light sandy soils of
central Holland; they are a stylish chestnut horse of medium stature. Groningen
horses come from the heavy clay soils of northern Holland and are a large, heavy,
In the heyday of coaching in the 19th century, horses were imported
to Europe from England - the Nor
East Bulgarian horses are an elegantly-built light horse
that developed over the last 100 years. They are used mainly for under saddle
and light draft work, and are well-suited for a variety of competitive sports,
ranging from dressage to eventing.
They began develop at the end of the 19th century at the
"Kabiuk" stud farm (former Vassil Kolarov) near Shumen and at stud
farm in Bozhurishte near Sofia, in Bulgaria, by crossing local horses with
Arabians, Anglo-Arabians, Thoroughbreds, and English half-breds. Once
established, only additional Thoroughbred blood was added to improve their quality.
They were officially recognized as a breed in 1951.
They generally stand 15 to 16 hands
Einsiedler (also known as Swiss Anglo Norman or the Swiss
Half Bred) are blooded horses horses from Switzerland. They have been in
circulation since the tenth century. They were developed at the Benedictine
Abbey of Einsiedeln with Schwyer Horses, a local stock establishment. Around
the middle of the sixteenth century, they founded their very own studbook. They
became so popular that by the middle of the seventieth century a new studbook
was in rotation created by Father Isidor Moser. They were recreated by
utilizing mares of Anglo Norman decent and ones of Holstein roots to formulate
a breed referred to as Bracken horses. Some breeders continued their efforts of
crossing the blood lines and went on experimenting with Swedish lines
Eriskay ponies originated from the Outer Hebrides (an island chain off the west coast of mainland
Scotland). They are considered a very pleasing type of horse and also
quite strong. They can be used for harness work, riding, and are the ideal
breed for little ones to learn how to ride. They can be found in Scotland,
Ireland, United Kingdom, Wales, and the northern parts of France.
The locals, the Pict community of people, were very eager to
raise and breed this animal. They have received their unique name from where
they are from, the Eric’s Isle or otherwise known as the Eriskay area located
in Scotland. It''s very common to see Eriskay horses grazing there. The crofters
was just one group that was very fond of
This pony comes originally
from Lazio, (the Monti Ausoni and Monti Aurunci area, bridging the provinces of
Frosinone and Latina).
It was called the “Pony
of Esperia” after the Baron Ambrogio Roselli di Esperia who undertook its selective
In the past it was used
for carrying light loads and for its meat. It was only in 1962 that it was officially
recognized as a distinct breed and after thirty years it was added to the official
register at the “Associazione Provinciale Allevatori di Frosinone” (Association
of Breeders in the Province of Frosinone).
These are wild horses,
but once they are trained they show an equable temperament in the company of adults
and children and are suitable for u
Estonian horses (also known as Estonian native, Estonian
Klepper, or natively Eesti hobune) are a relatively small horse. The Estonian
horse has influenced several Baltic horse breeds, including Tori horses. They
are strong and are resistant against sickness.
Estonian Horses are descended from the primitive forest
horses that lived in Northern Europe more than 5,000 years ago, and are
considered the progenitor of other breeds such as the North Swedish Horse and
the Dole Gudbrandsdal. They have retained its qualities and looks due to little
influence by other horse breeds. However, it is believed that they became mixed
with the now extinct Oland Horse, as large numbers of Oland Horses were
exported to Estonia at one poin
Estonian horses (also known as Estonian native, Estonian
Klepper, or natively Eesti hobune) are a relatively small horse. The Estonian
horse has influenced several Baltic horse breeds, including Tori horses. They
are strong and are resistant against sickness.
Estonian Horses are descended from the primitive forest
horses that lived in Northern Europe more than 5,000 years ago, and are
considered the progenitor of other breeds such as the North Swedish Horse and
the Dole Gudbrandsdal. They have retained its qualities and looks due to little
influence by other horse breeds. However, it is believed that they became mixed
with the now extinct Oland Horse, as large numbers of Oland Horses were
exported to Estonia at one poin
Exmoor ponies are an English breed that has many practical
uses. They are described as hardy, tough, and rather pleasant. They can be used
for riding, in competitions, and also in races. They are found in Scotland,
Ireland, Wales, France, and the United Kingdom (especially in the Exeter region).
They are considered very sweet and agile.
Exmoor ponies are around twelve hands tall and are bred in
brown shades. They have a smaller head considering their size and also have
tough ribs. They are short creatures with strong feet. Compact and sturdy for
their many useful purposes, they are neat and possess a unique muzzle.
Falabella horses origanted in Argentina and was developed by
an Irish settler named Patrick Newell. Mr. Newell came across a group of horses
that were freely roaming the open land. He created a herd and over time went on
to give the herd to his son-in-law, Juan Falabella. The breed gained their name
from this family ownership and passed down from generation to generation in the
Falabella family. They were designed to be horses that were small enough to be
enjoyed with children, but independent enough to help on ranches and even be
used as work horses.
Falabella horses are used for riding, in competitions, and
for showing. They do very well on large farms and in smaller, fenced-in areas
as pets. They are gentle and very w
Faroe Ponies (also known as Faroese Island Horses or Danish
Ponies), are small ponies, they are between 115 cm -125 cm tall. Because of
their height technically they are a pony, but people on the Faroe Islands call
them horses, because of their strength.
Faroe horses are an iconic image of the Faroe Islands. They
have been on the Faroe Islands for many hundred years. In the 1960s there were
approximately 5 - 6 horses left on the Faroe Islands because of the huge export
on horses to the mines in the United Kingdom. With a huge effort, that number
has now increased to about 50 horses and the aim is to maintain and develop
They are mainly brown, red, and black. They are very hardy,
Fell horses are considered very hardy and strong. Fell
horses come from England, primarily in the Lake District areas but they can be
found in Scotland, England, Ireland, Wales, and France. They are generally used
for riding and harness work. Some of them have very distinct markings, such as
a white star or black marking on their heads. They are simple to upkeep since
they can reside in warm or cold climates. They also do not require many
supplies to be maintained for most of the day.
They are closely related to Dales horses and were founded
upon the Pennine Pony styles. Pennine versions were quite popular for many
decades in England, and once the Romans moved into the territories, they were
Ferghana horses were one of Chinas earliest major imports,
originating in an area in Central Asia.
Dayuan, north of Bactria, was a nation centered in the
Ferghana Valley of present day Central Asia, and even as early as the Han
Dynasty, China projected its military power to that area. The Han imperial
regime required Ferghana horses and imported such great numbers of them that
the rulers of Ferghana closed their borders to such trade. That move resulted
in a war that China won. In 102 CE, the Chinese required of the defeated
Ferghana that they provide at least ten of their finest horses for breeding
purposes, and three thousand Ferghana horses of ordinary quality. However,
there are other views: the Records of the Grand
Finnish Universal horses, also known as Finnhorses, are consider
the breed capable of fulfilling all of Finlands horse needs, including
agricultural and forestry work, harness racing, and riding. They are found in
Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark.The Finn people are rather proud of finnish
Universal horses as they have been given the reputation as being some of the
fastest in history.
During the Bronze Age there were definitely horses roaming
around, but it has been rumored this was one of those styles. The local army
utilized the breed over and over again on various tasks and missions. Once the
studbook was created in 1907, they were outlawed to perform anymore out
crossing. That studbook went on to be di
The Finnish Warmblood
breeding association was founded in 1926 with the intention of breeding a
warmblooded riding horse that could be used for both sport and military
service. The goal was an elegant, modern horse with good balance, athletic
movement and solid character.
After their calvary needs
were finished, demand for them declined, as did their numbers. Today’s Finnish
warmblood, like most European warmbloods is used primarily for sporting
Fjord horses are one of the
oldest horse breeds in the world. They are believed to be related to Przewalski
(primitive Asiatic Wild Horses), but their exact origin is unclear. The Vikings
used Fjord horses as their war mounts. Spending many centuries in mountainous
terrain resulted in Fjord horses developing into a strong, sure-footed horse,
well adapted to the severe weather conditions needing very little care. They
proved to be the perfect pack horse on mountain trails and well suit for light
draught work on hilly farms.
The first Fjord horse stud
book was published in 1910. The Fjord horse is very popular in Denmark and can
also be found in Germany and England.
Fleuves are strong and hardy horses from Senegal. They are
related to Barb Horses. They can withstand extreme temperatures of cold and
heat. They were bred to be work horses to carry packs, transport, and work in
agriculture--even though they are a light breed. In the equestrian world they
live longer, are really hardy, easy keepers, and have an excellent immune
system. They range in size from pony size to horse size, however, 14 hands is
the most common height.
Their color tends to be gray like their Barb ancestors. They
do, however, come in other colors, as well, such as brown or bay. They are a
rare breed and are mostly seen in Senegal.
Florida Cracker horses (also known as as Chicksaw Pony,
Seminole Pony, March Tackle, Grass Cut, Prairie Pony, and the ever popular
Florida Cow Pony) originated in Florida, USA. They can found in Florida, Georgia,
and Alabama.They are known for being smaller (around 14 hands), attractive,
very smart, and having a big personality.
Some experts believe they were brought over from Cuba, which
would certainly account for their smaller size. They, like some other famous
southern breeds, have an unusual gait that comes naturally to them (a
single-footed gait referred to as the ‘coon rack’).
They did very well over the years, but did suffer from a
decrease in popularity when the Quarter Horse came about. Som
Fouta, also known as a Foutanke, are a light horse from
Senegal in West Africa. They are a composite of Fleuve and MBayar Ponies.
While most Senegalese horses are relatively lightly built,
owing to their common Arabian ancestry, there are some more heavily framed
animals. These prove less stressed by the constant pulling of heavily laden
Frederiksborg horses, are from Denmark, and may be the
oldest horse breed in history. During the Renaissance, they were popular with
the elite or wealthy as a status symbol and as a sign of luxury. Originally,
they were developed solely for carriage pulling. Once they displayed their
ability to be used for many other purposes and proved their strength, they
increased in popularity rather quickly. Beginning in the middle of the fifteen
hundreds, the Royal Frederiksborg Stud was developed by King Frederik II.
However, for a time the Arabian horses were more popular. It was until the
eighteen hundreds that they because as popular again. They were even exported
continuously, becoming a moving force in the warm blood forms, as well as t
Freibergers (also known as the Franches-Montagnes) are a
draft horse from Switzerland. They were widely used as draft and pack horse in
the Swiss army. Breeding used to be heavily subsidized in Switzerland.
Freibergers are the last representative of the light cold blood horse in
Europe. Each year at the Marche Concours in Saignelegier, on the second weekend
in August, Freibergers demonstrate how versatile they are in a variety of shows
and competitions. Due to their character, willingness, and versatility, they
are suitable for both driving and riding; they are a popular mount.
They were developed by crossing native Bernese Jura horses
with English Thoroughbreds, Anglo-Norman, Ardennais, and Arabian ho
French Saddle Pony
French Riding Ponies (also known as French Riding Pony or Pony
Francais de Selle) usually stands 13.2-14.2hh at the withers. The pony can be
of any color except cream with blue eyes. They are versatile and athletic and
are an excellent mount for the entire family- children and adults alike. They
must be balanced, broad chested, have good shoulders, a good top line, and good
withers. Their legs must have no conformation faults. The back must be strong.
They have forward moving, smooth gaits and good jumping ability. The ponies are
extremely hardy. The French Riding Pony has a good temperament. This pony is
much like the German Riding Pony and the English Riding Pony.
They were developed by crossing native French pony
French Saddlebred (also known as French Saddlebre, Cheval de
selle français, French Saddle Horse, French Warmblood, Corlais) horses are
considered a light riding horse and found throughout France. The breed was
developed in the 1950s.
They are known for being energetic, friendly, good-tempered,
patient, and quiet. They are best known for performing general riding and
Horses in France first began to be selectively bred for
trotting races in the early to mid-1800s. The French Trotter developed primarily
from Norman stock which was crossed with English Thoroughbred and half-bred
hunter types, Norfolk Roadster, and some American Standardbred. The French
Trotter is sometimes referred to as a Norman Trotter, due to the influence of
the Old Norman horse on the breed''s development.
The early Trotters were rather heavier and coarser than they
are now, bearing a greater resemblance to their Normandy ancestors, but
infusions of Thoroughbred blood have greatly refined the. Early significant
influences on the development of the breed were by the stallion Young Rattler,
foaled in 1811,
Friesian horses, or Frizian horse,are a horse breed
that originated in Friesland, which certainly makes sense. FYI: Friesland is in
the Netherlands. They are used both in harness and under saddle and most recently
they are being used in dressage.
They are black with
some occasional white marking; however, the only white marking allowed on a studbook-registered
horse is a small star. They are 15.2 to 16.0 hands tall on average and weight 1300
Friesian horses have the
conformation of a light draught horse; however, they are very graceful and nimble
for their size. There is some evidence that during the Middle Ages, ancestors of
Friezian horses were in popular as war horses
The breeding of Friesian Crosses has become increasingly
popular in the United States, with various registries often being created to
recognize certain specific crosses. Friesian crosses may be considered sport
horses (suitable for the sports of dressage, combined driving, eventing, and
jumping), or they may be considered pleasure horses.
Some popular crosses include Friesians crossed with draft
horses (primarily Percherons), Morgans (Friesian/Morgan is known as a
"Moriesian"), Arabians, Andalusians (Friesian/Andalusian is known as
a "Warlander"), Paints, Saddlebreds (Friesian/Saddlebred is known as
a "Georgian Grande"), Thoroughbreds, and Tennessee Walkers
(Friesian/Tennessee Walker is known as a "Friewalker."
Friesian Sporthorses are a Friesian crossbred sport horse. Ideally
Friesian Sporthorses are specifically bred to excel in FEI-recognized sport horse
disciplines. Thus, "sporthorse" refers to the phenotype, breeding, and
intended use of these horses.
Friesian Sporthorses can come in a variety of colors and sizes,
with no limitations on acceptable colors or markings. Their body type can range
from a sport horse build to a heavier more Baroque build. A higher-set and more
arched neck is also common among Friesian Sporthorses. They tend to have the gentle
temperament and striking appearance of the Friesian, but with an increased athleticism,
stamina, and hybrid vigor, when responsibly crossbred. They are most commonly used
Furioso, or Furioso-North Star, horses were developed at the
Mezohegys farm, Hungary, in 1784. One of the foundations sires was
"Furioso" who was an English Thoroughbred stallion. Furioso was born
in 1836 and set for stud in 1841. Another foundation sire was "North
Star" who was born in 1844. He was set for stud in 1850, at age six. His
bloodlines could be traced to Norfolk roadsters and he was descended from a
1793 Derby winner, "Waxy," grandson of "Eclipse." The mares
were mostly Nonius. The descendants of North Star were excellent harness race
horses. The two lines merged around 1885 and the Furioso progeny dominated. The
offspring of Furioso had more thoroughbred blood and made better riding horses.
Galiceno horses were developed in Mexico, from horses
imported by Hernan Cortes, mostly thought to be Portuguese Garrano and Galician
Ponies of Spain. It is thought that Sorraia blood was added at some point in
the breed''s history. The ancestors of the Galiceno were among sixteen horses
landed by Cortes during his Mexican invasion in 1519 for use in the mines and
as transport. During the rest of the 16th century, conquistadors continued to
bring horses into what is now Mexico, including many small-framed,
smooth-gaited horses. Many of these horses eventually escaped or were released
and formed feral bands in Mexico''s mountainous interior. Over the next few
centuries, local inhabitants began to catch and use horses from the increa
Galician Ponies are from Galicia, in the northwest of Spain.
The region has a very wet climate and numerous low mountains.
They are a mix of Celtic horses, Roman horses, and horses
brought to Spain by the Suevos. More recently they have been crossbred with
other breeds. Despite their ethnic heterogeneity (three types of Galician
ponies can be found in different parts of Galicia) the main characteristics are
their straight profile, linear proportions, height of between 1.20 and 1.30
meters, and a chestnut coat. An interesting characteristic of one of the three
types is the long mustache which appears on the upper lips of the older mares.
They are large for a pony, but smaller than a horse. They
are rugged and h
Galloway ponies are an extinct horse breed, once native tornScotland and northern England. It was said that they had "good looks, arnwide, deep chest, and a tendency to pace rather than trot." They were a well known type of pony, first noted inrnEnglish literature when Shakespeare referred to "Galloway nags" inrnHenry IV part II.
A survey in 1814 stated: The province of Galloway formerlyrnpossessed a breed of horses peculiar to itself, which were in high estimationrnfor the saddle, being, though of a small size, exceedingly hardy and active.rnThey were larger than the ponies of Wales, and the north of Scotland, and rosernfrom twelve to fourteen hands in height. The soils of Galloway, in theirrnunimproved state, are evid
Garrano do Minho
Garrano (also known as Minho, Minho, or Tres os Montes)
horses are an ancient breed, descended from the same stock as the famous
Sorraias. Sorraias live mainly between the two rivers Sor and Raia, while
Garranos lives in North-Portugal, so they developed differently according to
their habitats. Garranos mainly lives in the fertile regions of Minho and
Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, and have probably had more outside blood influence
It is generally believed that the Garrano is one of the
ancestors to Andalusian and Galician Ponies. Recently, they have had infusions
of Arabian blood, implemented by the Portuguese Ministry of Agriculture. This
has refined the breed, but the ponies have also begun to l
Gayoe (also known as Kuda-Gayo) Ponies are from the island
of Sumatra, Indonesia. Their name is derived from the Gayoe hills in the north
of the island. Gayoe ponies are one of eight breeds native to Indonesia, the
others are the Batak Pony, Deli pony, Bali Pony, Java Pony, Sumba and Sumbawa
Pony (and closely related Sandalwood Pony) and Timor Pony.
Gayoe ponies are generally solidly colored. They are a dark
bay shade commonly called "brown." Skewbalds are often seen, as well.
Adults are approximately 12.2 hands (114 cm) tall at the withers, and
are primarily used for transportation on Sumatra, and the 1997 FAO Breed Survey
indicated that the breed has a stable population
Gelderlander horses are from The Netherlands. Originally
they were bred for the solely for ram work, but over time they were bred with
Thoroughbred horses, as well as other breeds such as Anglo Norman, Hackney, and
Oldenburgs. Over time they have been used for farm work, for competitions, as
carriage horses, military use, and even transporting heavy loads. Today they can
be found in The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, and Amsterdam.
They have a convex profile, are 16 hands tall, and are
incredibly strong. They also have a high set tail with a long mane and good
feet. They are bred for chestnut and gray.
Georgian Grande horses are crossbreeds bwteen Friesian and
Saddlebred horses. The aim of the breeding is to create a Saddlebred-like horse
that adds the best qualities of heavier breeds. They are intelligent, alert,
proud but always calm and quiet. They are also aasy to train and very willing
The first attempts to create a new, heavier Saddlebred-type
breed were made in the 1970s by George Wagner Jr, in Piketon, Ohio. His
ambition was to recreate the stockier, sturdier look of the Saddlebred of older
times, such as the animals used as cavalry mounts during the American Civil
War. He considered this the original type of the Saddlebred horse instead of
the prevailing modern, lighter type. Wagner''s breed
German Riding Pony
German Riding Ponies (or Deutsche Reitpony) is a very
popular pony breed from Germany. They are described as a "miniature
warmblood" with refined, horse-like characteristics that make them
suitable as both a children''s pony and as a mount for sport horse competitions.
German Riding Ponies have a phenotype very similar to that
of a full-sized horse. Only their head is pony-like, giving the appearance of
having a pleasant manner and friendly disposition. They are bred to be handled
by children and adolescents. They are suited for both dressage and jumping.
Their development began around 1965, with a crossbreeding of
various English pony breeds, especially Welsh ponies, on Arabians,
Also known as the "Cavallino della Giara" (The little horse of Giara), it is originally from the highland region of the same name, in Sardinia. Little is known about its origins. Probably it was brought into Sardinia by the Greeks in the 5th or 4th century B.C., at the time of the nuraghe. It is accustomed to grazing free in its difficult native terrain. To save the horse from extinction a breeding and re-populating center was set up in 1971, at Foresta Burgos in Sardinia. This was established by the â€œIstituto dirnIncremento Ippico di Orzieriâ€ (the Orzieri Institute for Horse Breeding) and used horses selected from the grazing herds.
This breed is tough, strong and agile. It can be used for herding sheep or, if well-trained it ma
Golden American Saddlebred
Officially the Golden Saddlebred color was infused in the
American Saddlebred Horse Association through a horse by the name of Pat
Cleburne, who was foaled in 1864. According to the Palomino Horse Breeders of America,
the first golden Saddlebred registered was Pot O'' Gold, later known as
Richardson''s Pot O'' Gold. This horse was foaled in 1939 and was bred by S.A.
Clift of Waxahachie, TX, and registered with the ASHA as Clift''s Pride.
What does one look for in a Golden American Saddlebred?
First and foremost, is conformation. A beautifully shaped, well-proportioned
head is a must. The ears are small, alert, and placed at the top of the head.
The neck is long, and well-ar
Gotland Ponies (also known as Russ or Skogsruss ponies) are
believed to be descended from pre-historic horses that migrated west from the
plains of Asia. They are indigenous to the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea
off the Swedish coast. In the 1800s Oriental blood was introduced to the
Until recently, with the coming of mechanization, the
Gotland pony was extensively used by Swedish farmers for light draft work.
Their relatively great strength and endurance adapted it to such work. At this
time, there remains a herd of non-domesticated Gotland ponies. They live on the
island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea off the Swedish coast in a forest at
Gotland Ponies stand 12
Groningen horses, also known as Groningse Paard, are from
Groningen horses are very strong and purposeful. They are
also willing and reliable. Commonly, they are used as a harness animal and for
riding. They are mostly bred in black, browns, and bay colors, they are around
16 hands tall. They have a convex profile and have very muscular quarters. They
are found in Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, Amsterdam, Groningen, and other
lands around the North Sea.
In the beginning, they were created to be used for farming
purposes. Buy by the later part of the nineteenth century; they were virtually
extinct as their predecessor, the Dutch Warmblood, grew closer to taking
Gypsey Vanner horses (also known as Irish Cob, Colored Cob, Gypsy
Cob, Tinker Horse, and Gypsy Horses) originated in the British Isles. They are a
small, solidly-built horse of cob conformation and are often, but not always, piebald
or skewbald. They are the only broken-colored horse breed of the British Isles,
and are particularly associated with the Pavee and Roma travelling peoples of Britain
From about 1850 travelling people in the British Isles began
to use a distinct type of horse to pull their vardos, the caravans in which they
had just begun to live and travel. The color and look of the breed were refined
in the years after the Second World War. Horses of this type were first exported
to the United Stat
Hackney horses (also known as Roadsters) were developed in
England and greatly improved as a result of a mandate by King Henry VIII. They
are considered one of the finest United Kingdom breeds. English society wanted
a horse that could carry their heads high, that could have an interesting gait,
and could have their knees lifted with ease. Hackney horses fit that demand and
were further bred to improve those features, often with the infusion of Arab
blood lines. In the late eighteen hundreds, the Hackney horses began their very
own studbook and went on to be produced all over the entire world.
It is believed that Hackney horse got their name from the
French word ''Haquenee'', which means ''riding horse''. You can find the
Originating from Hafling
(called Avelengo in Italian), which is near Merano (South Tyrol).
Also called Haflinger, Hafling Horse or Pony Avelignese. It is a very old breed,
even though it was officially founded in 1874, with its present characteristics,
from the coupling of an indigenous horse with the stallion El Bedavi (perhaps of
In the past they were
widely used for agricultural work, and although they are still used for those purposes,
it is much appreciated today for agro-tourism riding, and in many sporting disciplines.
It is a saddle horse.
In 1971 the National
Association of Haflinger Horse Breeders – Italy was founded, and it was entrusted
with the management of the Stud Book
Hagerman horses (Equus simplicidens), also called the
Hagerman zebras or the American zebras, were a North American species of equine
from the Pliocene epoch and the Pleistocene epoch. It is one of the oldest
horses of the genus Eqius and was discovered in 1928 in Hagerman, Idaho - it is
the state fossil of Idaho.
Hagerman horses first appeared about 3.5 million years ago. They
were approximately 110–145 centimeters (43–57 inches) tall at the shoulder. They
weighed between 110 and 385 kilograms (243 and 849 pounds). An average Hagerman
horse was about the same size as an Arabian horse. They also were relatively
stocky with a straight shoulder and thick neck, like a zebra, and a short,
narrow, donkey-like skull.
Hanoverian Horses (German: Hannoveraner) are one of the most
well-loved and wide-spread of the European warmbloods, and they have made a
name for themselves in Grand Prix competitions and the Olympic Games.
Hanoverian horses were established in Celle, Germany in 1735
by George II, King of England (1727-1760). They were initially refined with
Thoroughbred blood, giving their movement more freedom and lightness. The ideal
result was a horse swift and strong enough for competitions while remaining
tough enough for general work. By the end of the 18th century there were
detailed logs of bloodlines which were carefully monitored. During the
Napoleonic Wars much of the Celle stock was depleted, however it picked up
Heck horses were developed to resemble the now extinct Tarpan horses. They were
created by the German zoologist brothers Heinz Heck and Lutz Heck, director of
the Berlin Zoo, at the Tierpark Hellabrunn (Munich Zoo) in Germany. The first
foal born from the program was a colt born on May 22, 1933 at the Tierpark
The Heck brothers
believed that they could recreate the extinct tarpan subspecies by back
breeding living descendants. They felt that they could combine and rearrange
the genetic material from these living descendants into a recreation of the
They bred together
several European small horse and pony breeds reputed to be descended from the
tarpan. They used mares of the
Heihe horses originated in Heihe City, China. Heihe is
situated alongside Heilongjiang, a well-known river basin. The primary sources
of livelihood for the inhabitants of Heihe include transportation and
agriculture -- horses are important in the accomplishment of both tasks.
Heihe is a place where the temperature is rather
unpredictable. This has made the Heihe breed relatively adaptive to sudden
shifts in temperature. Since they are well-adapted to variable climates and
they can combat diseases well. Unless overtaxed and overworked, they stay strong
Mongolian horses were initially sent to Heihe city by the
Soulun nation. This was followed by Russians sending horses of an unknown breed
Henson (French: Cheval Henson or Cheval de Henson) horses
are from the area of the Baie de Somme in Picardy (now part of
Hauts-de-France), in north-eastern France. Unlike the majority of French horse
breeds, the Henson was created in the late 20th century with the goal to obtain
a hardy horse adapted to all forms of equestrian tourism, outdoor riding and
Near the end of the 1970s, horse riding was oriented towards
outdoor recreation for nature-loving families. This promoted pony trekking as
well as driving. This trend implied the search for a leisure horse suited in
regions such as the Somme, where equestrian tourism became popular in the area
of the Baie de Somme.
In 1974, the birth of two
Hequ, or Hequl, horses are found in the Qinghai Province of
China and are used as a pack and draft animal as well as for riding and racing.
Hequ means "river zig." They originated in the border area of
Qinghai, Sichuan, and Gansu provinces where the Yellow River makes a large
"zig." Prior to 1954 the breed was known as Nanfan which is often
misapplied to the Tibetan horse. During the T''ang dynasty the Hequ horse was a
favored spoil of war in the region.
During the T''ang dynasty (618-917) the emperor established a
large horse facility to develop the calvary. To do so he imported large numbers
of horses from western Asian countries to use on the local Tibetan stock. Chief
among the breeds influencing the Hequ w
Reliable sources for local breeds in Hessen did not exist.
There was no state breeding as it was all based on the local farmers in the former
centuries. The princely stables bred with imported breeds according to the
period''s fashion and for their own use only, creating no unique breed type. The
only exception was the Beberbeck stud which existed until 1929 and had a good
name for noble half-breeds.
After being included in the Prussian stud agency in 1866 the
Hessian breeders could not compete with the more important breeds of the other
Prussian provinces. Therefore the rural breeders concentrated upon the breeding
of draft horses, as those were in large demand. The still existing warmblood
breeding which was
Highland Ponies originated in the Highlands of Scotland and
the islands off Scotland’s west coast. It is believed that they had lived there
for thousands of years. Starting from about the 6th century the Dukes of Athol
were influential breeders of the Highland Pony and introduced eastern blood to
create a hardy, sure footed, and long lived pony suitable for the harsh
environment. Their strength and sturdy built made the Highland Pony a popular
choice as an army mount, in harness work hauling timber, as a mount for
shepherds, and as a pack horse for deer stalkers to carry the shot stags
weighing more than 101kg (16 stones) into the hills and back.
In 1923 the Highland Pony Society was founded and until
recently the breed
According to Pakistan''s Agricultural Department, the original
stock of the Hirzai breed is said to have been derived from a mare owned by the
Rind chief named Shol, by an Arabian stallion belonging to a European military
officer who accompanied the contingent of Shah Shujah al-Mulk through Shoran in
the first Anglo-Afghan War of 1839. Representative animals are still owned by
His highness Suleman Dawood Khan of Kalat.
The predominant color of the Hirzai is gray or white. The
head is handsome with a broad forehead; the neck is medium in length, muscular,
and arched; the body is compact with a short back and well-muscled loins; the
croup is level; the shoulders are well sloped and powerful; the forearms are
Hispano-Breton horses were developed by crossing native Pura Raza Espanola horses with imported Breton draught horses. They are found mainly in two separate areas of northern Spain: Castile and Leon and parts of neighboring Cantabria; and the Pyrenees of Catalonia. They are listed in the Catalogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado de Espana in the group of autochthonous breeds in danger of extinction.
Holsteiner horses originated in Germany several centuries
ago and are probably the oldest German warmblood horse. Holsteiner horses have
German, Neapolitan, Spanish, and oriental bloodlines and were very popular in
the 17th century in Italy, France, and Denmark. During the 19th century Holsteiner
horses were crossed with Yorkshire Coach Horses and Cleveland Bay stallions to
produce a tough, active, handsome carriage horse with a willing nature and
distinctive high knee action. The also become popular as an army mount.
In 1867 the Prussians founded the Traventhall Stud in
Schleswig-Holstein where the breeding of modern day Holsteiner horses began.
Today the main breeding center is located in Elmshorn, Germany. After World
Hucul (also known as Carpathian, Huculska, Hutsul, Hutul,
Hutan or Huzul) ponies are small horses from the Carpathian Mountains. They
have a heavy build and possess great endurance and hardiness.
Hucul horses bear some resemblance to the now-extinct Tarpan
horse. They are named after the small ethnic group of Hutsuls; however, they
have been around much longer the Hutsul people. Hucul horses are probably
depicted on the monuments erected by Roman Emperors Domitian and Trajan, as
Dacian draft horses. They were mentioned for the first time in written
resources around 400 years ago (as the "Mountain Tarpan"). Unlike the
Polish Konik, the Hucul has been only rarely cross-bred with domestic horses.
Hungarian Warmbloods (Hungarian: Magyar sportlo) are a Hungarian
breed of sporting horse. Like the Furioso-North Star, the Gidran, and the
Nonius, they were developed at the Hungarian State Stud at Mezohegyes, in Bekes
County in the Southern Great Plain region of south-eastern Hungary. At the end
of 2012, their total number was reported to be 1091. The breeders'' association
is the Magyar Sportlotenyesztok Orszagos Egyesulete, or Association of
Hungarian Sporthorse Breeders.
Iberian Warmbloods are sport horses that have a minimum of
25% Andalusian and/or Lusitano bloodlines from one or both of their parents.
The ancestors of these horses include the primitive Sorraia horse, which around
900 B.C., was mixed with horses from Northern Africa. The Sorraia, perhaps the
oldest breed of horse, is depicted in early cave paintings found on the Iberian
Breeders of dressage and show jumping horses have long been
seeking a way to breed a horse with greater sensitivity and a greater ability
for the collection required for piaffe, passage, and jumping. The Iberian blood
strengthens the horse''s soundness, athleticism, and versatility. When bred to
other breeds with the big stride for
Icelandic horses are one of the oldest horse breeds in the world.
They were brought to Iceland by the first settlers from Norway, in the late ninth
to early tenth centuries.
Due to the harsh climate and the lack of vegetation over more
than one half of the country, the Icelandic horse had an extremely difficult existence.
Only the strongest and the fittest could survive.
As a result of a plague in Europe, Iceland quarantined itself
for many years. In AD 930 a law was passed to ban the importation of horses and
other animals into Iceland to keep out diseases. This had the effect of preserving
the purity of the Icelandic horses – they have never been crossbred with other horses
and have remained pure for over a t
Indian Country Bred Horse
Indian Country Bred is the common name for a inter-bred
mixture of Bhutia Ponies, Spiti Ponies, and Tibetan Ponies. These animals have
been interbred for years so that many of the individual characteristics of the
Bhutia and Spiti have been lost, and they now are categorized as "Indian
Country Bred." They originated in the Himalayan region of India, and are
now found in the Buhtan, Sikkim, and Darjeeling regions of India.
They were well suited to mountainous climate and terrain,
they are not as able to endure humidity and heat. In fact, they are given to
sun stroke and have trouble equalizing their internal temperature. A lack of
nutritious grasses generally affects the growth and development of these
Iomuds are light horses from Turkmenistan. They are raised
in Turkmenistan, particularly in the velayat of Dasoguz; in Uzbekistan; in
Karakalpakstan (now part of Uzbekistan); and in Iraq, Iran and Turkey.
Like other breeds of Turkmen horses – including Akhal-Teke,
Ersari, Goklan, Salor and Sarik –Iomuds are named for the Turkmen tribe that
formed it, the Iomud. Both the name of the horse and the name of the Turkmen
clan may be spelt in many ways, including Iomud, Yomud, Yamud and Yomut. The
Iomud people occupy the northern part of modern Turkmenistan, from the eastern
shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the area of Dasoguz, on the northern
edge of the Karakum Desert, in the north-east. They are principally
Irish Draught horses are native to Ireland. They are a light
draught breed that was historically developed for work on farms. Today they
have adapted to the ever-changing pace of equestrianism to become a very versatile
breed. As a foundation breed of the Irish Sport Horse, the Irish Draughts temperament
makes them easy to work with in any discipline. Along with characteristics of strength,
intelligence, courage, and light action they are an ideal equine to partner with
from amateur to professional rider.
From the earliest times horses have always been a part of Irish
life. Over the years small active native horses were crossed with Norman horses
and Spanish Andalusian stallions to increase the size of the native breed. I
The Irish Sport Horse is considered Irelands, most successful
competition horse.The selective breeding
of Draught bloodlines with Sport horse breeds and thoroughbred produces a truly
exceptional equine athlete that excels and competes to the very highest levels in
equestrianism.Renowned worldwide for their
wonderful temperaments and wiliness to workthe Irish Sport horse is a horse of distinction.
The Irish Sport Horse is considered Ireland’s most successful
competition horse.The selective breeding
of Draught bloodlines with Sport horse breeds and thoroughbred produces a truly
exceptional equine athlete that excels and competes to the very highest levels in
equestrianism.Renowned worldwide for their
Italian Heavy Draft
Italian Heavy Draft, also known as Rapid Heavy Draft, horse
were developed in the 19th and 20th centuries using both draft and light horse
breeds, and are used mainly for heavy draft work and meat.
Italian Heavy Draft were developed starting in 1860 at the
Deposito Cavalli Stalloni stud in Ferrara, Italy. They were developed from
crossing native Po Delta stallions with Thoroughbred, Hackney, and Arabian
horses. Around 1900, weight was added to the breed with the addition of
Boulonnais, Ardennes, and Norfolk-Breton blood. The breeding programs suffered
during World War II, but a careful crossbreeding program with Ardennes,
Percheron and Breton horses after the war brought the Italian Heavy Draft to
Italian saddle horses are
a recent creation and are excellent horses for show jumping, dressage, eventing,
endurance. They were created by crossing many Italian breeds, with the Sardinian
Anglo-Arab predominating. The aim has been to obtain a horse with a noble appearance
and the robustness typical to the descendants of English thoroughbreds, and the
reliability of the Italian breeds.
Italian TPR Agricultural
Italian TPR Agricultural
Horses are draught horses, characterised by a heavy frame and great development
of the muscles and the skeleton, are differentiated into slow heavy draught horses,
represented by the Belga breed, and fast heavy draught horses, represented by the
Italian Agricultural Horse. Thanks to its high speed of growth and the notable development
of its muscle mass, these alter are also particularly appropriate for the production
The Italian TPR Agricultural
Horse has its origin in the plane of Venice, Ferrara and Friuli. At first stallions
from Polesine were used, but later on English thoroughbred stallions were introduced,
along with Hackneys and Arab thoroughbreds. Around 1900 productio
The Italian Trotter
is a harness racing horse developed over the last century by crossing Thoroughbred
stallions with French (Norman) trotters, Russian Trotters and American Standardbred
mares. The goal of the selection was to blend the speed of the Standardbred with
the stamina of the French Trotter. The result is a large, physically powerful horse
standing up to 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm) at the withers, with athletic ability
and capable of defeating Standardbreds on the race track.
The most famous Italian
trotting horse is certainly “Varenne”. He has won the equivalent of 6,400,000 euros
He was born on May19TH
1995, the progeny of the stallion Waikiki Beach and the mare Ialmaz. Varenne is
Jaca Navarra (also known as Poney Navarro, Caballo Navarro,
Caballo Vasco-navarro, Caballito de Andia, Caballito de las Amescoas, or
Caballito de la Barranca, Jaca de Montana, Raza de Pamplona, or Raza Pamplonica)
are small horses from the Navarre region of northern Spain.
They are listed in the Catalogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado
de Espana in the group of autochthonous breeds in danger of extinction. The
total population of the Jaca Navarra has been variously estimated at 350 (in
1999), 250 (in 2000), and 240 and decreasing (in 1997). In April 2011 the total
population was reported to be 899, all of which were in Navarre. The breed is
listed by the FAO as Endangered.
Java ponies were developed on the island of Java in
Indonesia. Most likely they are descended from wild forebears of Mongolian Wild
Horses. There are eight breeds native to Indonesia, the others are the Batak
Pony, Gayoe, Deli pony, Bali Pony, Sumba, and Sumbawa Pony, and Timor Pony. The
Dutch East India Company played a part in the development of many different
Indonesian breeds through their introduction of oriental horses. Their first
factory was established on the island of Java during the 1500s and from that
time on they have imported harness and pack horses. A large part of the Java''s
heritage is due to the crossing of local stock with Arabian and Barb horses
that were imported.
The average height is about 11.2-12.2 h
Jejus (or Jejuma) are horses native to Jeju Special
Self-Governing Province, Republic of Korea. There is a diverse array of types,
each differently identified depending on their coat color. Jeju horses mature
well in harsh conditions due to their strength and fitness. With an outstanding
tolerance of low temperatures, they have been mostly pastured without the need
for horse blankets or stables.
Jeju horses were once considered to be endangered. Following
the nation’s industrialization period of the 1960s, Jeju horses became
impractical to use with the distribution of new agricultural machinery and
developments in means of transportation. In response, the Government of the
Republic of Korea designated the Jeju
Jutland horses originate from Denmark. They have been
rumored to have given the English Suffolk Punch horses their own history, but
many feel it may be the other way around. The Suffolk breed is considered the
latter of the two, but also a more refined version. One stallion in particular
named Oppenheim LXII was one of the Suffolk Punch variations that went on to be
imported to Denmark. Just six generations later down the line, the horse Aldrup
Menkedal was given the label as being the founder of the breed. Virtually all
Jutland horses can be linked to the Hovding and the Prins of Jylland and their
two sons. In 1928, Jutland horses were traded to buy the Copenhagen area
brewery called Carlsberg. During those times, the brewery had
Kabarda, or Kabardin, horse is from the Caucasus, currently
part of the Kabardino-Balkaria region of Russia and Georgia. They have been
known for at least 400 years, but their origins are probably as old as the
Hittite civilization. They are noted for their endurance and ease to adapt in
Kabardas have been bred since the 16th century by mountain
tribesmen in the northern Caucasus, and are the product of centuries of
selective breeding for the ability to survive in harsh conditions. They were
formed from a combination of steppe, Karabakh, Arabian, and Turkmenian horses.
They are usually kept in herds, and are moved between mountain pastures in the
summer and foothills areas in the winter.
Kaimanawa are wild horses from New Zealand. The first horses
arrived in New Zealand in 1814, and mobs of feral horses were reported as early
as the 1870s. The principal (and only remaining) herds became established in the
North Island’s Central Plateau, where they became known in general as the “Kaimanawa
Because of increasing concern by the public for their supposed
declining numbers, a Committee, under the umbrella of the Forest Service, was formed
in 1978 to look after the horses’ interests, and a protected area was established
Subsequently, the Department of Conservation raised questions
regarding the impact of the horses on the environment in the area, noting that the
major threat t
Karabair, or Karabairskaya, horses are a very old breed
based on ancient stock that has been documented as being in the Uzbekistan area
before the Christian era.
It is likely that the Karabair developed through a mixture
of Arabian and Mongol blood, later influenced by the desert horse breeds from
the neighboring countries, such as the Turkomene, and further infusions of Arab
blood. Uzbekistan is still populated by a vast number of nomadic peoples who
have been, through the years, the principal breeders of the Karabair. Their
lifestyles accounts for the number of different breeds which have gone towards
the development of the Karabair. They have similarities to the Arab, especially
in their innate toughness and
Karabakh horses are a mountain breed from Azerbaijan. They
have many of the same traits as some other breeds, such as the Arab and the
Akhal-Teke. They are one of the very few breed that have a iridescent and shiny
coat; like Akhal-Teke horses.
At one point Azerbaijan was invaded and the horses used
because the descendants of karabakh horses. Around the seventeen and eighteen
hundreds, Karabakhs, numbering around four thousand. Soon, they became populare
in Europe and Russia as well. In 2004, one of these horses earned themselves a
speed of one minute and nine seconds for completing a one thousand meter
sprint. You can find theses horses in a place called Azerbaijan, but do keep in
mind only a choice
Karacabey Horses originated in Turkey but became extinct
during the late 20th century.
After the establishment of Turkey as an independent nation,
the Turks bred horses they called Karacabey at the Karacabey Stud. They were
developed by crossing a Turkish strain of Arabians bred specifically for racing
with the native Anadolu and Nonius breeds.
High quality show jumpers began to be imported from France
and Germany, and the Karacabey breed was forgotten in favor of the exotic
breeds. Another reason for its decline was competition from motor vehicles; the
government decided there was no longer a need for this horse. The Karacabey Stud
ceased all breeding of the Karacabey horse in 1980, and approximately 3,000
Karachay (also known as Karakachan Pony, Karatschai Pony,
Karatschaever, Karatschaewsker, orKarachaier) horses were developed in the
Northern Caucasus. They came from the highland Karachay at the rise of Kuban.
They were developed by crossing regional horses with eastern stallions.
Karachay horses are summered in rugged mountain country where there are large
changes in temperature and humidity, and wintered in the foothill and plains
with some hay feeding. These conditions made the Karachay horse strong-limbed
They were first bred for use in the military and agriculture
use. They were bred by Karachays around the 14th-15th centuries in the climatic
and geographical conditions of the North Caucasus. They were
Kathiawari horses are from the Kathiawar Peninsula, India. They
are similar to Marwari horses and are often confused with them.
Their ancestors arrived in the India via shipments made by
moguls that were well known masters in the Indian lands. They have a strong
Arabian horse bloodline present in them, and they certainly do look like one of
the Arabian styles. The notorious Gujarat families at the time were the only
ones wealthy enough to own the Kathiawari horses. While they are brave
creatures and athletic as well, they are best used as a family pet. They were
also once war horses but only the strong survived since only the strongest
horses left after battles were typically sent to breed. Currently, you can s
Kazakh horses were developed by the Kazakh people, who live
mainly in Kazakhstan, but also in parts of China, Mongolia, Russia, and Uzbekistan.
Kaszakh horses are used mainly for riding and are known for their hardiness and
This group of steppe horses was numerous as early as the 5th
century B.C. Since then Kazakh horses were influenced by many breeds -
Mongolian, Karabair, Arabian and Akhal-Teke. In the late 20th century, Kazakh
horses have been improved by the Thoroughbred, Orlov Trotter and Don.
Kazakhstan horses are kept on pastures the year round. They
are concentrated in western Kazakhstan. In this vast territory they have become
differentiated into various ecological types an
Kentucky Mountain Saddle
Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horses are from the U.S. state of
Kentucky. They were developed as an all-around farm and riding horse.
They are related to the Tennessee Walking Horse and other
gaited breeds, but their exact early history is unknown. Kentucky Mountain
Saddle Horses have a similar history to the Rocky Mountain Horse, and together
are sometimes called "Mountain Pleasure Horses". The Kentucky
Mountain Saddle Horse was developed by farmers looking for a small horse that
could perform dual duty as a powerful work horse and comfortable riding horse.
They were used for long travel over rough terrain, and were developed to have
gentle temperaments so that they could be handled by young members of the farm
Kerry Bog Pony
Kerry Bogs are draft ponies from Ireland. They are
traditionally used for hauling peat fuel from bogs, as well as for general
draught work on small holdings. They almost vanished during the twentieth
century, declining to as few as 40 known horses. Genetic analysis of the
survivors by Weatherbys confirmed unique genetic breed markers, and the breed
is now recognized as the Irish "Heritage Pony." A controlled stud
book and registry now exist, and numbers have recovered to about 400.
The mares are 10-11hh and stallions and geldings up to
11.2hh. They are commonly brown, brownish black, or bay, but may be any whole
colour and chestnut, dun, and grey occur also. Their coat is long and dense,
easily capable of survi
Kiger Mustangs are
wild horses found in
southeastern Oregon, US. They are named
after their natural habitat, mostly in the Kiger Canyon. They are related to Spanish horses
brought to North America during the 1600’s and that until recently, this
bloodline was thought to be extinct.
As a result of a roundup of wild horses in 1997, the Bureau
of Land Management (BLM) identified a group of horses with very similar traits.
They were separated and subject to genetic testing conducted by the University
of Kentucky which showed that the bloodline is not extinct. Their numbers were estimated in 2013 to be 101 horses in both the Kiger and
Riddle Mountain Horse Management Areas. Every 3-4 years the BLM conducts a wild
Kinsky, or Equus Kinsky, were Europe''s original sport horse.
They were bred until the middle of the 20th century in Bohemia, a part of the
modern-day Czech Republic. At one time they were the most prominent breed in europe.
The development of the Kinsky horse is closely linked with
the history of the Chlumec branch of the Kinsky family and in particular Count
Oktavian Kinsky (1813–1896). The family of the Count had for decades bred
Thoroughbreds for horse racing or steeplechasing. The first known mention of
the breed term "Kinsky horse" or the now-protected designation
"Equus Kinsky" is from the year 1838, with the creation of modern
sport horse stud book. Prior to 1838, the horses were known only as the
Kirdi (also known as Mousseye, Cameroon, Lakka, Logone,
Mbai, and Mussey) ponies come from the Logone River in the sub-Sahel region of
Cameroon (southwest Chad and northern Cameroon). They are named for the
Mousseye tribe in southeastern Cameroon who raise them.
In 1826 they were first noted. It was not until 1926 that a
description of these ponies was actually recorded. Not much research has been
done on them. The population has been rapidly declining and is in danger of
extinction. There have been no regimented breeding programs. However, in 1986
the Cameroon government created an Equine Program to safeguard the Kirdi
(Mousseye Pony) from extinction and to develop the horse industry in Cameroon.
There are some who believe
Kisber Felver was developed at the Kisber Thoroughbred stud
ranch in Hungary. Many race horses were produced by the stud, including an
unbeatable mare that is in the Guinness Book of World. The Kisber Felver horse
breed was created over a hundred years ago from careful selection, and a controlled
breeding program to create a desirable sport horse in conformation, movement,
athletic ability, and temperament.
In 1947 after the end of World War II there were very few Kisber
Felver left in Hungary. 150 Kisber Felver horses were imported for the US
Remount, but were sold at public auction in 1947 when the remount disbanded.
Unlike other European imports such as the Lipizzaner, the imported Kisber
Felvers were widely cro
There are records of horses being raised systematically in
the Kiso region of Nagano Prefecture, Japan, as early as the 6th century. The
region produced, according to legends, 10,000 cavalry mounts for Kiso
Yoshinaka''s army. It is thought that these small horses were introduced from
Korea in the third century.
They are similar to Tarpan and Mongolian horses. During the
Meiji Era, the Japanese government had Kiso stallions castrated and imported
larger stallions to cross into the breed to increase the Kiso size. Luckily, one
stallion that survived the castration process, Shinmei, is the single sire who
saved the breed. By the use of back breeding the breed''s purity and original
form remain. However, the Kiso breed is r
Kladruber (or Kladrubský kun) horses are the oldest Czech
horse breed, and today are considered very rare. Their main breeding center is
the National stud farm Kladruby nad Labem in the Czech republic. Kladrubers
have been bred there for more than 400 years, which makes them one of the
world''s oldest horse breeds.
The Kladruby stud was founded in 1579 by Rudolf II as an
Imperial stud, at the Perlstein stables. The breed was based on imported
Spanish (such as the Andalusian) and Italian horses, crossed with Neapolitan,
Danish, Holstein, Irish, and Oldenburg horses, in addition to heavy Czech
breeds. They were first developed to be a galakarosier (a heavy type of
carriage horse used to pull the imperial coach),
Knabstrupper Horses, also known as Knabstrup or Tiger
Horses, are a Danish breed of horse with an unusual range of coat coloration,
often with tiger-like stripes.
In 1812 Villars Lunn, owner of the manor house
Knabstrupgaard, bought from a butcher named Flaebe. Probably the mare was of
Spanish origin, but it looked very much like an English hunter type. The
butcher had bought the mare from a Spanish officer, stationed in Denmark during
the Napoleon wars.
The unusual color of the Flaebe mare was memorable. She was
dark red with a white mane and tale, covered with small white snowflakes on her
body, and brown spots on her blanket.
There has been a lot of guessing about the origin of the Flaeb
Konik horses, also known as Polish primitive horses, are an
ancient horse breed; they most likely are related Tarpan horses and possibly
Hucul and Arabian horses as well. They were very popular in Poland; they are
valuable for farm work. They are strong for their size and shape (their name means
‘little horse’). They were found in Poland, Slovankia, Ukraine, Belarus,
Lithuania, Popielno, and other areas surrounding the Baltic Sea.
Currently, most reside on various reserves, such as the
Whitehall Meadow. During the 1930’s, a professor named Tadeusz Vetulani started
to attempt to get the breed back on its original path. Some are also situated
on the Ham Fen National Reserve and Sandwich Bay as well. The Suffolk Wildlife
Gayoe (also known as Kuda-Gayo) Ponies are from the islandrnof Sumatra, Indonesia. Their name is derived from the Gayoe hills in the northrnof the island. Gayoe ponies are one of eight breeds native to Indonesia, thernothers are the Batak Pony, Deli pony, Bali Pony, Java Pony, Sumba and SumbawarnPony (and closely related Sandalwood Pony) and Timor Pony.
Gayoe ponies are generally solidly colored. They are a darkrnbay shade commonly called "brown." Skewbalds are often seen, as well. dults are approximately 12.2 hands (114 cm) tall at the withers, andrnsmall-bodied.
They are primarily used for transportation on Sumatra, andrnthe 1997 FAO Breed Survey indicated that the breed has a stable population ofrnabout 7,50
Kushum, or Kushumakaya, hosrses were developed at the Pytimarsk
and Furman studs in Urals region of Kazakhstan from 1931 to 1976. They were developed
largely from trotter, Thoroughbred, Don, Budyonny, and Kazakh horses.
Originally, the goal was to develop, on the basis of the
native Kazakh horses, a good army mount. Kazakh mares were crossed with
Thoroughbreds and half breeds, as well as the trotters, to obtain larger size
and to improve gaits.
They have a high adaptability to local conditions, which is
reflected in increased weight gain in spring and autumn, which makes them suitable
for meat and milk production’ their large size and live weight guarantee a high
yield of horse meat.
Landais horses come from the sandy beaches of Southwest
France. They are related to small Barthais hores and Arabian horses. The result
is a small (about 13 hands tall) Arab-style horse. Sometime in the beginning of
the twentieth century, there were an estimated two thousand of them roaming
wildly worldwide. Just after the Second World War, they were decreasing in
popularity, but in the 1970’s a studbook was produced and improved in numbers
since then. Today they are found in France and Spain.
horses are used for riding and harness purposes alike. They are generally
black, bay, chestnut, and other brown shades. They are neat in appearance, have
a high set tail, attractive head, and sloping sho
Latvian horses come from Latvia and are split into three
types: the common harness horse, a lighter riding horse, and a heavier draft
type. They are probably from pre-historic bloodlines, and have been in
development since the 17th century.
The Latvian horse breed has only been established since
1952, but is believed to have descended from ancient roots. It is likely that
Latvian horses are closely related to Dole Gudbrandsdal horses, North Swedish
Horses, and other heavy European draft breeds. Since the 17th century, the
breed has had German riding horse, Thoroughbred, and Arabian blood introduced.
The core of the current breed came from infusions of
Oldenburg, Hanoverian, and Holstein blood in the early
Lipizaan Horses (also
known as Lipica or Lipizzano horses) were developed in Lipizza (Lipica), a small
locality near Trieste, which is today in Slovenia, but was Italian up to the Second
World War and before that, Austrian. Its origins date from the mid-16th century,
through an initiative of the Archduke Charles of Stiria, third child of the Emperor
Ferdinand I of Austria. Factors contributing to the choice of the Lipizza area included
the good quality of the horses which populated Carso and the Aquileiese area and
the favorable climate, plus its proximity to areas of great horse-breeding tradition
and the production of excellent horses.
The current production
of the thoroughbred Lipica-Lipizzano Horse derives from two I
Lithuanian Heavy Draught
Lithuanian Heavy Draughts are a draught horse breed created
in Lithuania during the 19th and 20th centuries. They were developed by
crossing local Zhmud mares with Ardennes, Percheron, Brabant, and other heavy
In Lithuania draught capacity testing began in 1857, and
since 2002 the Lithuanian Horse Breeders Association has taken over the
responsibility of heavy horse testing. Recently, more have begun to be exported
for meat. They are also used to improve other breeds. When crossed with native
Altai horses, they improved the meat and milk yield and also increased the
weight, growth rate, and ability to withstand year-round grazing conditions.
Initially, Lithuanian Heavy Draughts were inc
Lokai horses were originally developed by the Uzbek Lokai
tribe from Tajikistan, formally part of the Soviet Union. Their descendents
were Oriental mainly of central Asian strains such as the Iomud and the Akhal-Teke.
Karabair and Bukhara horses also are in the Lokai background. Arabian horses
were later introduced into the breeding mix.
They are approximately 14.3 hh. Some are smaller. Their
colors range from gray, bay, chestnut, black, and palomino. The coat is often
curly and has a shiny, metallic like shine.
Bonnie L. Hendricks, in her book entitled International
Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds, wrote: "Horses with curly coats are most
often found among middle Asian breeds, especially in t
Losino horses received their name from the original area
where it is bred, the Losa Valley, in the north of the province of Burgos
(Spain). They are related to other breeds derived from the Cantabrian-Pyrenean
branch: the Portuguese Garrano, the Galician pony, the Asturian pony, the
Thieldon, the Sorraia, the Navarre horse, the Basque Pottok, the Mérens horse,
and the now-extinct Catalan horse.
maintained their number until the 1950''s but afterwards, principally due to
farming mechanization, they were crossbred with meat breeds and donkey populations
for mule production. As a result their population declined to around 30 horses.
Due to the alarming situation, a project for recuperating the breed was
Lundy Ponies were first developed on Lundy Island in England
in 1928, when the owner of the island, Martin Coles Harman, introduced 34 New
Forest pony mares, eight foals, and a Welsh Mountain B strawberry roan
stallion. Diana Keast, his daughter, explained why he chose to cross these
breeds: "He wanted ponies with a bit of style and height. Dartmoor and
Exmoor ponies were nearer and more convenient - after all he had to charter a
special train to bring the ponies from Lyndhurst - but they wouldn''t have had
the height he wanted." The Welsh stallion died only a year after arriving
on the island, having sired just one foal - a colt called Pepper. Luckily this
first "Lundy pony" grew into an upstanding stud stallion, creamy dun
Lusitano horses are from Portugaland are similar to Andalusian
horses. They have Roman features that can be spotted from afar and also have
many relatives of Spanish descent. All of the aforementioned are of Iberian
lineage and contain Sorraia blood lines. Generally sought after for military
purposes, they were also used for Portuguese bull riding adventures, as well as
carriage riding. Some have the distinct dun color that is so popular for many
in the Sorraia breed. Some can be used for Olympic purposes and hundreds have
been placed in the World Equestrian Games. Very high expectations are set in
place to become a breeder for the Lusitano. In Brazil during the late 1970’s, a
breeder made his mark by developing the Interagro breed
Mallorquins, or Caballo Mallorquins, are a rare breed of
horse indigenous to the island of Majorca in the Balearic Islands, from which
it takes its name. They were first identified in 1985 by the Patronato para las
Razas Autoctonas de Mallorca (''authority for the autochthonous breeds of
Mallorca''). Mallorquin horses are listed in the Catalogo Oficial de Razas de
Ganado de Espana in the group of autochthonous breeds in danger of extinction. Their
status was listed in 2007 as critical by the Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations. In 2005 the number of Mallorquin horses recorded in the
stud book was 247, but a census conducted by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y
Medio Rural y Marino in 2003 identified only 172. I
Malapolski horse were developed in the 19th century in
Lesser Poland, Polish Malopolska, hence the name. They are a versatile breed,
used today for light draft and under-saddle work.
They were developed from a combination of Arabian and
Thoroughbred blood, with significant contributions from the Furioso and Gidrán
breeds (both strains of Hungarian Anglo-Arabian. There are two distinct
varieties of the Malapolski. The first is the Sadecki, which was heavily
influenced by the Furioso line, and the second is the Darbowsko-Tarnowski,
heavily influenced by theGidrá and Shagya Arab Gidrán line. They were also influenced
by infusions of various other Arabian and Thoroughbred half-breeds. Today, they
Mangalarga horses are from Brazil. They were first developed
by Francisco Gabriel Junqueira (Baron of Alfenas) who bred Royal Alter
stallions from Portugal with colonial horses in Brazil. This mix also
originated the Mangalarga Marchador breed that differs from Mangalarga horses
because Mangalarga Marchador’s have different, and unique, smooth gait.
When the Junqueira family moved to Sao Paulo, the topography
and local culture forced them to look for a horse with different
characteristics and so they started to cross breed the Mangalarga with Hackney,
Morgan, American Saddle, Hanoverian, and Trakehner horses. This made the
Mangalarga a completely different horse breed form the Mangalarga Marchador.
They are so
Mangalarga Marchador comes from Brazil. They possess
Alter-Real blood lines that went on to be called Sublime Horses. They have a
very unique gait that appears to look somewhat like a march when they walk and
gallop. This gait is referred to as the marcha. In the eighteen hundreds the
Sublime horses began to be purchased by those called the Hacienda Mangalarga
group. It was at this point that they were no longer known as the Sublime
horses and changed to the Mangalarga Marchador style of horses. They are
notorious for their variances in marches including the marcha picada, the
marcha batida, and the center march. One is slower, one is a diagonal pace, and
the last one is thought to mimic the unique style of the Tennessee Walking
The Maremmano horse
originated in the Maremma region of Tuscany and Lazio at the time of the ancient
Etruscans. From then until the nineteenth century it kept its original characteristics:
squat, strong and skittish. Then, in about 1870, it began to be crossed with more
lightly-built and docile horses. In the year 1902, the stallion Fauno was born at
the Royal Stables at San Rossore, Versilia, in Tuscany. The result of a cross with
an English thoroughbred, he was the first of the so-called “new generation”. The
introduction of the English thoroughbred smoothed out some of the squat, rough characteristics
of the original Maremmano, while also increasing its height and its rugged temperament.
This is a strong,
Marwari horses comes from the Northwestern areas of India.
They are notably brave and can be extremely loyal to their masters. They have
quite a reputation for being warriors, ones that refuse to leave a conflictive
situation if asked to. In fact, these creatures have been known to only leave a
battle area if they won the fight or had to carry away their injured solider.
This all further explains their ways and the methods in which they operate
solely on the adoration of their owners. Also widely popular in the area of
Rajasthan, this breed is said to have some form of Arabian bloodlines in them
as well. It comes as no surprise to their many followers as they are notably
striking in appearance, as well as stature. Only royal family
Masuren, or Mazury, horses are an extinct breed of horse
from Poland. They were once a very notable breed and was a quality riding
horse. Mainly they were developed from Trakehner horses, and crossed with Pozan
horses. Masuren horses were bred at the stud at Liski in the Masuria region. In
1963 a Polish postage stamp showing a Masuren horse was issued.
Mecklenburgers are warmblood horses from the
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern region of north-eastern Germany. They have been closely
linked to the State Stud of Redefin. Historically influenced by Arabian and
Thoroughbred blood, today''s Mecklenburger is an athletic riding and driving
horse similar to the neighboring Hanoverian. They are bred to the same
standards as the other German Warmbloods, and are especially suitable for
dressage and show jumping, though they are used for combined driving, eventing
and show hunter competition as well.
The region today known as Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was, until
1934, composed of the duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
However, the region was united by virtue o
Very little is known about Megezh horses, other than that
they can be grullo, roan, grey, dun, sorrel, or bay, and that they are a
southern type of horse that has strains of Yakut, Olekminsk, and Suntar horse
breeds. Megezh is the largest type of the Yakut breed. They come from
southwestern Yakutia in the region of Leninsk.
In the later part of the l9th century a tough horse with
great endurance was needed for gold mining purposes. Thus Yakut and Kuznet
breeds were crossed and the Megezh Horse emerged. The cross produced horse was
strong and able to perform mining work. They are 14-15.1 hh. Other uses
included milk and meat production.
Menorquin Horses, or Cavall Menorqui, are indigenous to the
island of Menorca in the Balearic Islands, from which they get their name. They
are closely associated with the doma menorquina style of riding.
Menorca was under Moorish domination from 903–1287.
According some sources, research has shown links between the Menorquín and Arab
breeds, while others have shown it to be of Berber origin, and yet others
believe that it was brought to Menorca from central Europe by King James I of
Aragon. According to the Government of the Balearic Islands, it belongs to the
eastern group of indigenous Iberian horses which also included the now extinct
Menorquin horses were offici
Messara (also known as Cretan) horses are a light riding and
draft horse found on the island of Crete off the coast of Greece.
The native mountain-type Messara pony exists on the island
of Crete since year 1000 or longer. The name comes from the Mesara Plain where
they are mostly found. The modern Cretan horse was developed by crossing the
native mares on Arabian stallions imported during the Turkish occupation in the
17th century. They are now a rare breed with around 100 representatives. Since
1994 there exists a studbook and conservation program has been started.
Their main coat colors are bay, brown (a variation of bay),
black, and gray. They usually stand between 12.2 and 14 hands
Miniature horses are, as expected, small…really small; usually
less than 34–38 inches (86–97 cm) as measured at the last hairs of the mane, which
are found at the withers. While miniature horses are the size of a very small pony,
many retain horse characteristics and are considered "horses" by their
respective registries. They have various colors and coat patterns.
Miniature horses are friendly and interact well with people.
For this reason they are often kept as family pets, though they still retain natural
horse behavior, including a natural fight or flight instinct, and must be treated
like an equine, even if they primarily serve as a companion animal. They are also
trained as service animals, akin to assista
Minusin horses come from the Minusin Valley in the south
part of the Krasnodar region (Former Soviet Union) and was developed by the
people native to the area who have been breeding horses for hundreds of years.
As the needs for agriculture began to grow the breed was infused with the blood
of Don, Thoroughbred, and trotter stallions to provide it with needed size.
They have a large head, Roman nose, thick neck, large trunk,
and wide chest. Their legs are spindly but strong. They come in a variety of
coat colors including bay, dun, grulla, palomino and buckskin.
Misaki Horses (Misaki uma in Japanese) are as tall of a pony,
yet they have many horse characteristics and proportions. The first reference
to Misaki Horses is in 1697, when the Akizuki family of the Takanabe Clan
rounded up feral horses and developed a pool of breeding stock. However,
following the end of World War II, Misaki horses were designated as a National
Natural Treasure and nowadays they have returned to feral life, mainly in a
designated National Monument on Cape Toi at the south end of the Miyazaki
Prefecture, attracting many tourists to the region.
Source: Japanese Horse Breeds (
Missouri Fox Trotter
Missouri Fox-Trotter comes from Missouri, US (which you
could have guessed by the name). They have received their unique name from the
dance they did when they were developed in the Missouri Ozarks. They have a fluid
four beat gait. This makes for a very graceful ride. They are well known for
being easy to manipulate through mountainous terrains. Many years ago, it was
thought that the pioneers utilized these horses to get from the Mississippi
River to Tennessee, then also to Virginia. They were first called an Ozark Hill
Horse and were used frequently for many farmers. They were finally registered
in Ava, Missouri sometime during the middle of the nineteenth century.
They are used for shows and compet
Miyako Horses (Miyako Uma in Japanese) originated from
Miyako Island in Okinawa, a prefecture known as a horse breeding area for
centuries. In 1055, population of the breed peaked at around 10,000.
Unfortunately, the increase of motorization caused this number to decline, and
by 1983, there were only seven head alive. The population grew to 25 horses by
1993, but had dropped back to 19 by 2001, despite the great efforts to preserve
this breed of great antiquity.
Miyako Horses resemble Mongolian horse and nowadays they are
mainly used as riding ponies, and sometimes for light draft work.
Monchino, or Monchinu, horses are indigenous to the Valle de
Guriezo in the Cantabria region of northern Spain, and the neighbouring Biscay
province. They are listed in the Official Catalogue of Livestock Breeds of
Spain (Catalogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado de Espana) in the group of
autochthonous breeds in danger of extinction. The word monchinu means
highlander, from the mountains, in Cantabrian.
Mongolian horses (Mongolian aduu: "horse" or mori;
or as a herd, ado, or in Northern Khalka, tabun) are the native horse breed of
Mongolia. They are considered to be have been largely unchanged since the time
of Genghis Khan. Nomads living in the traditional Mongol fashion still hold
more than 3 million horses, which outnumber the country''s human population.
Despite their small size, they are horses, not ponies. In Mongolia, the horses
live outdoors all year, dealing with temperatures from 30 °C (86 °F) in summer
down to -40 °C (-40 °F) in winter, and they graze and search for food on their
own. The mare''s milk is processed into the national beverage airag. Some
animals are slaughtered for meat. Other than that, they serve as rid
Montana Travler horses were developed in the US state of Montana
and are a relatively new saddle horse breed. In the 1930s, Montanan Tom Eaton
began combining the bloodlines of Tennessee Walking, Morgan, American
Saddlebred, Thoroughbred, and Hamiltonian horses in a search for "the
perfect horse." By the early 1970s, his breeding resulted in an
eye-catching, ground-covering chestnut stallion.
The stallion, named Montana Travler, walked at a brisk eight
miles per hour, with a giant eight-inch-plus overstep. He trained easily, and,
when bred, sired offspring of exceptional quality. This success motivated Eaton
to found the Montana Travler Horse Association in 1979, writing, "Justin
Morgan established a breed from
It originated in the
province of Pisa (Tuscany), particularly in the area of Monterufoli. According to
some writers it derived from a now extinct type known as the “Selvina Breed” which
lived in the wild. The area from where the Montrufoli comes is now largely covered
by the “Monterufoli-Caselli” Nature Reserve, a hilly region lying at between100
and 560 metres above sea level.
The story of the Monterufoli
began in 1913 when the estate was purchased by the Counts of Gherardesca. The real
process of selection and improvement began with the work of this family, who selected
the best specimens from the original population to breed with Maremma, Tolfeta and
Oriental stallions. The breed then established itself in the provinc
Morab horses were originally developed in the late 1880’s
through the cross-breeding of Arabian and Morgan horses. They were developed
with the intent of creating a fine carriage horse that was still substantial
enough for moderate farm labor. The modern Morab continues this tradition of
paired power and elegance, being both attractive and competitive show animals,
and strong but mild-mannered work and family horses.
The first Morab registry was created in 1973. Prior to this,
Morabs were primarily undocumented horses bred for type. Many early Morabs were
registered with the American Morgan Horse Association, as the Morgan studbook
was still open that time, and these horses have since been fully assimilated
Morgan horses were one of the first horse breeds developed in
the United States. All Morgans can trace their lineage back to a horse Justin Morgan,
who was named after his owner.
Morgan horses are known for their strength, elegance, and history.
The Morgan horse lent its muscle to clearing and tilling New England farms during
the earliest years of American history. Today it is a popular driving and riding
horse, surefooted over rough trail as it is refined and dignified in the show ring.
Morgans served many roles in 19th-century American history, being
used as coach horses and for harness racing, as general riding animals, and as cavalry
horses during the Civil War on both sides. Morgans have influenced
Mountain Pleasure horses have been relatively unchanged for
a century or more. They reflect the primitive Appalachian gaited horse type and
may be ancestral to modern breeds developed in the region during the late
1800''s and early 1900''s, including American Saddlebred and Tennessee Walking
As a landrace, the Mountain Pleasure is variable in type,
with some horses having distinctively Spanish features and others resembling
the larger, modern breeds. Consistent among all is a smooth four-beat gait that
replaces the trot. They stand 14.2-15.2 hands at the withers and weigh 850-950
pounds. Most of the solid colors known in horses occur in the breed, including
grays and roans.
Moyle horses are famous for their frontal bosses, referred to
as horns, thought to be inherited from Asian ancestors. Moyle horses were
developed in Idaho by Rex Moyle from Mustangs brought from Utah. According to
some studies, it is said that the Moyle may have descended from the Spanish
Moyles are extraordinarily fast and agile--more than most
breeds. They perform well in the equestrian arena as well. They excel on race
tracks, endurance competitions, and do well over jumps. They are extremely
strong. Their conformation is stronger than most breeds. Moyle horses have an
exceptionally large rib cage and their internal organs are large. Moyles have
strong shoulders that are widely spaced and
This breed originates
from, and is spread throughout Puglia: in particular, the Murge region. It can trace
its origins to the time of Spanish domination, when Arab, Berber and Andalusian
stallions were brought in. But the real development of the Murgese horse was thanks
to the Counts of Conversano. They were a family of farsighted nobles who were very
adept in choosing horses for importation and careful in selecting those which fitted
the needs of the time and the character of the area. The breed was first officially
registered in 1926 at the “Deposito Stalloni” (Stallion Registry), which later became
the “Istituto di Incremento Ippico di Foggia” (Foggia Institute of Horse Breeding).
The Murgese is a country
Mustang horses are descendants of Spanish, or Iberian,
horses that were brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th
century. The name was derived from the Spanish word mustengo, which means
"ownerless beast" or "stray horse." These horses bred with
other breeds of horses, including quarter horses and draft horses, to create
the breed we know today.
Mustang herds vary greatly on how much they can be traced to
the original Iberian horses. Some contain a greater genetic mixture of ranch
stock, while others are relatively unchanged from the original Iberian stock.
In 1971, the United States Congress recognized that
"wild free-roaming horses and burros are living symbols of the historic
and pioneer spirit
Namib Desert Horses are a rare horse found in the Namib
Desert, of Namibia, Africa. They are most likely the only feral herd of horses
residing in Africa. Today, approximately 150 horses now live in 350 square
kilometres of the Namib Desert. The origin of these animals is unclear, though
several theories have been put forward. Genetic tests have been performed,
although none to date have completely verified their origin.
Horses are not native to Sub-Saharan Africa. The first
horses in sub-Saharan Africa were brought by the Dutch to the area of the Cape
of Good Hope in the 17th century. One theory says that a ship with horses on
board was run aground; the strongest horses were able to swim ashore to the
mouth of the Orange Ri
Nangchen horses are a small breed of horse native to the
Kham region of northern Tibet. They are thought to have been bred pure since
the 9th century. They became known to the western world in 1994 due to the
exploration of French anthropologist Michel Peissel.
They are said to contain no ancestry from any of the common
sources for most other Tibetan pony breeds, neither Mongolian horse, Arabian
nor any type of Turkish blood. They are powerful and fast; and have many of the
characteristics of a modern racehorse. They have refined features, are
pony-sized, but tall for ponies, swift and agile. Their unique characteristics
include adaptations to the very high altitude of the region, including enlarged
Neapolitan, Horses originated on the plains between Naples and Caserta, in the
Campania region of Italy, but may have been bred throughout the Kingdom of
Naples. Neapolitan horses were frequently mentioned in literature from the 16th
to the 19th century and noted for their quality. Corte wrote in 1562: ‘in Italy
the horses of the Kingdom of Naples are greatly esteemed; [there] many fine
coursers are born ... suitable for use in war and in the manège and for every service
that the rider may require.’ The decline of the breed was noted in the early
20th century by Mascheroni (1903) and Fogliata (1908). Some sources state that
by 1950, the original Neapolitan horse was deemed extinct, but its lines were
Narragansett Pacers were the first horse breed developed in
the United States, but is now extinct. This breed was developed in the United
States during the 18th century and associated closely with the state of Rhode
Island, and it had become extinct during the late 19th century. The Pacer was
developed from a mix of English and Spanish breeds, although the exact breeds
are unknown, and they were known to and owned by many famous personages of the
day, including George Washington. Sales to the Caribbean and cross-breeding
diminished the breed to the point of extinction, and the last known Pacer died
Narragansett horses possibly could have been an ambling
horse, rather than a true pacing breed. The pacer was k
Narym, or Narymskaya, horses are from Russia. Russian horses
are varied and have developed over a period of thousands of years. They have
evolved to live in harsh climates--cold and desolate. There is often little
forage for survival, however, the Russian breeds are hardy.
Narym Ponies are similar to Ob ponies and originated near
the same area in the central of the region near the Ob River of Western Siberia.
The two breeds live under much the same ecological and economical conditions,
and may be considered two groups or types of the same breed of northern forest
horse. It stands between 13 and 14 hands high.
Narym Ponies are larger than the Ob pony and is crossed with
draft horses and trot
National Show Horses originated as a part-Arabian cross
between an American Saddlebred and an Arabian horse. They are now established
as a separate breed, since the founding of a breed registry in 1981.
National Show Horses combine the refinement of Arabian
Horses with the animation of Saddlebred horse. The resulting horse has the
high-set, upright, long, swan-like neck of the Saddlebred. The neck should not
have a pronounced crest. The head is usually refined and small, with small ears
and either a straight or concave profile. The horses are close-coupled with a
level topline and have a very deep, laid back shoulder. The tail carriage is
National Show Horses may be a variety of colors, including
Navarra (also known as Navarran, Navarrais, Navarre, Caballo
Espanol, or Subraza de Navarra) Ponies are a North Iberian Mountain Pony. They
are bred in the Urbasa Nature Reserve. The province of Navarra, between the
Pyrenees and the valley of the Ebro, in the region around Pamplona is their
homeland. They live semi-wild in small herds.
They stand 12 hand to 12.3 hands at the withers. They are
generally dark brown without white markings. medium head, straight profile,
small ears, mouse, muscular, wide neck, strong, deep body, sloping croup, short
coupling, solid legs, hard, round hooves. They are forward moving and sure
footed. They have an abundant mane and tail. These ponies are tough, easy
keepers and healthy
New Forest Pony
New Forest Ponies were named after a region in southern
England, New Forest. Their exact origin is unknown but ponies have lived in the
area for many centuries. During the 18th century the Thoroughbred stallion
Marske, father of the famous race horse Eclipse, served New Forest mares. In
the mid-19th century one of Queen Victoria''s Arabian stallions was allowed to
run with the New Forest herd. Hackney blood was also introduced. The cross
breeding added to the pony''s size but was harmful to the true pony element.
In order to correct the situation stallions of other native
breeds including Dales, Dartmoor, Exmoor, Fell, Highland, and Welsh Mountain
ponies were crossed with the New Forest. The result was a tough, sure foot
New Kirgiz, or Novokirgizskaya, horses were developed in the
state and collective farms of Kirgiz, Russia, by crossing local horses with the
Don and the Thoroughbred horses. New Kirgiz horses are well adapted to highland
conditions. They are used for stock work and meat and milk production. They are
short-legged and massive and they have a strong constitution. In type and
conformation they closely resemble Don horses.
The average measurements of stallions (in cm) are: height at
withers 156, body length 158, chest girth 188, the cannon bone girth 20.5.
Mares'' measurements are somewhat lower: 151,155, 180 and 19 respectively.
New Kirgiz horses have a medium-sized clean-cut head with
Newfoundland Pony are an “all purpose” pony known for its
strength, courage, intelligence, obedience, and willingness. Newfoundland Ponies
are hard workers and easy keepers.
Newfoundland Ponies’s ancestors first arrived with the
Newfoundland’s early settlers from the British Isles. Their ancestors were
primarily, Exmoor, Dartmoor, and New Forest ponies and to a lesser extent,
Welsh Mountain, Galloway, Highland, and Connemara ponies. They were hardy
creatures who were already well adapted to the harsh climate of the islands of
the North Atlantic. Isolated from the rest of the world, the ponies
intermingled for hundreds of years, breeding in the seclusion of Newfoundland’s
bays and coves to produce a sturdy pony
Nez Perce Horses are spotted horses bred by the Nez Perce
tribe of Idaho. The Nez Perce Horse Registry (NPHR) program began in 1995 in
Lapwai, Idaho and is based on cross-breeding the old-line Appaloosa (Maamin -
the Nez Perce word for Appaloosa) horses (the Wallowa herd - "old
herd" mares from the Minam line in Wallowa, Oregon) with an ancient
Central Asian breed called Akhal-Teke. This program seeks to re-establish the
horse culture of the Nez Perce, a tradition of selective breeding of Appaloosa
horses and horsemanship that was destroyed in the 19th century. The breeding
program was financed by the United States Department of Health and Human
Services, the Nez Perce tribe and a nonprofit group called the First Nations
Nivernais are endangered black heavy draught horses from the
Nievre region of central France. They stand about 165 to 175 centimetres at the
withers, occasionally up to 180 cm, and weigh 800–1000 kg. They were created in
1872 by the Comte de Bouille by crossing black Percheron stallions with local
Cheval du Morvan mares. A stud book was opened in 1880, and from that time the
breed largely supplanted the Cheval du Morvan. Their population declined from
the 1950s following the mechanisation of agriculture, and in 1966 the stud-book
was merged with that of the Percheron. Since the 1980s various efforts have
been made to preserve the breed. Without official recognition in France, it is
listed in DAD-IS by the FAO.
Nokota horses are feral and semi-feral horses located in the
badlands of southwestern North Dakota in the United States. They get their name
from the Nokota Indian tribe that inhabited North and South Dakota.
Nakota horses are often blue roan, which is a color rare in
other breeds, although black and gray are also common. Other, less common,
colors include red roan, bay, chestnut, dun, grullo and palomino. Pinto
patterns such as overo and sabino occur occasionally.
They have an angular frame with prominent withers, a sloped
croup, and a low set tail.
There are two general types of Nokota horses. The first is
the traditional Nokota, known by the registry as the National Park Traditional
Noma Horses (Noma Uma???
in Japanese) come from the Noma region of Imabari in Ehime Prefecture, Japan.
They originated in the 17th century from Mongolian stock, they are the smallest
of the native Japanese horse breeds. They are valued for their gentle
personality and strength. In the past they were used for riding, light draft
work, and as packhorses on the steep mountainsides in the rough Noma region.
Today, they are mostly used as riding horses for children and as study subjects
in local schools.
It is believed that in the early 17th century, Lord
Hisamatsu of Matsuyama Han charged local farmers with breeding his warhorses,
and the breed grew in popularity until the Russo-Japanese war in 1904, when the
Nonius, or Noniusz, horses were developed at the Imperial
Stud at Mezohegyes, Hungary by careful linebreeding. Originally they were bred
to serve as a light draft and utility horse for Hungary''s military; but they
became a useful agricultural horse during the 20th century. Today they are bred
by preservationists and are used in agriculture, leisure riding, and
competitive driving sports. The largest numbers of Nonius horses are still
found at the Mezohegyes stud ranch, with representatives in other eastern
European nations as well.
Horse-breeding has been an important facet of Hungarian
culture since its settlement, due largely to its geographic location and open
plains. The Ottoman Conquest, beginning in 1526
Nooitgedacht Ponies are one of the few indigenous breeds in
South Africa, and the only true descendant of the better-known Basuto Pony.
Nooigedachts are a rare horse breed, with only about 400 purebreds in
Their development began in 1951 when the South African
Department of Agriculture brought a group of Basuto-type ponies. In 1952 a
breeding project began on the Nooitgedacht Research Station. This was done
primarily to save the famous Basuto horses from extinction but also because
South Africa needed an indigenous farm and riding horse adapted to conditions
of the region.
Due to large-scale inbreeding in the past, the breeders at
Nooitgedacht had to use extreme care. For this re
Nordlandshest / Lyngshest horses, also known as the
Northlands horse or Northlands pony, originated in Norway. They are the
smallest of the three Norwegian national horse breeds. They originated in
Lyngen, but were given the name Nordlandshest in 1968 by breeders in that area.
The name change was hotly disputed by breeders in Lyngen and surrounding areas,
but a compromise was later reached, and today their official name is both
Nordlandshest and Lyngshest.
The first documentation of Nordlandshest / Lyngshest horses
date back to 1898, in Lyngseidet, Troms. Organised breeding began in the 1930s,
when most of the breed population lived in the northern counties of Norway. Many
of them died and few were bred during World War
Norfolk Trotters, also known as Norfolk Roasdsters, are an
extinct horse breed once native to East Anglia and Norfolk, England. They were
claimed to be ‘a large-sized trotting harness horse originating in and around
In 1542, King Henry the eighth required the rich citizens to
keep a specific number of trotting-horse stallions. Norfolk Trotters were well
praised in Norfolk, and later became known as the Norfolk Trotter.
Norfolk Trotters became the standard travel horse in
England. In the city of Yorkshire, the same breed was known as the Yorkshire
Trotter. Norfolk trotters were also known as roadsters. It is common to see the
term Norfolk / Yorkshire Roadster / Trotter in breed-history books; regardle
The Norico is a heavy
draft-horse, coming originally from the Alpine valleys beween Austria and Italy.
The original horse
was re-established by the Romans who undertook a breeding programme in their old
province of Noricum. During the Renaissance the breed was improved with the introduction
of strains from Neopolitan and Andalusian horses. Nowadays the Norico is to be found
in some Alpine regions of Italy (Trentino and Alto Adige), as well as those of Austria
It is a mountain breed
and characteristically resistant to illness, strong, fertile and long-living.
A variety with a lighter build, known as the Pinzgauer, is raised in Bavaria.
The Norico is suitable
for pulling heavy loads a
Norman Cobs are descended from bidets, small horses that
from Asia. They were brought by the Celts. They lived in Brittany and Normandy
before the start of the Roman Empire. Eventually these horses reached Russia
and were interbred to Mongolian Horses. Romans interbred these horses with
their heavy pack mares. In the 10th century the Norman breeders were known for
their war horses--large, strong with good endurance. In the 16th and 17th
centuries Barb and Arabian blood was introduced. In 1665 the first royal stud
farms were founded. Stallions were selected in 1730. In the 19th century the
Norfolk Roadster was mixed in. English Thoroughbred blood was added along with
English hunter stallions. The horse developed into the Anglo-Norma
North Swedish horses originated
in Africa…just kidding they are from Sweden. They were developed from
Scandinavian horse breeds. They have been used as pack horses, military mounts,
and forestry work. They can be found in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia. They
are smaller (about 15 hands tall) than some of the more powerful breeds, but do
not let their size fool you; they are very strong, excellent workers. They are also
very sweet, willing, tender, and easy to care for.
They have a relatively
small head, a crested neck, sloping shoulders, deeper body frame, and very
rounded quarters. They also have a low set tail and a sweeping quarter. They
have solid, round feet. They also have a low wither and a deep c
Novokirghiz, or Novokirgizskaya, horses were developed in
the 1930s in Kirghizia (Kirghistan). They were developed by breeding Old
Kirghiz horses with Thoroughbred, Russian Don, and Anglo-Don horses. They are
used for harness, riding, and agricultural work, as well as pack horses in the
mountains. They are able to cope with almost any type of terrain. The mares are
usually used for milk, which locals ferment and turn into kumis, a major staple
of their diet. The mares can give up to 20 kg of milk daily. Speed records of
this breed are: 1600 m in 1 min 48 sec, and 2400 m in 2 min 44.2 sec.
In 1918, forty-eight Thoroughbreds were imported to the
Issyk-Kul stud in Kirghizia (Kirghistan) and were bred with Old Kirghiz mares.
Ob Ponies, also known as Priob ponies, are from the
Khanty-Mansi national district near the lower areas of the Ob and Irtysh rivers
in western Siberia in Russia.
The climate they are from is severe with extreme cold, deep
snow, and a lack of grain foods. Ob Ponies are used chiefly as pack animals in
the winter. During the summer months they do not work and are left free to
graze the marshes.
Ob Ponies live long lived and fertile; they work until they
are eighteen or twenty years old. In general they are similar Yakut Ponies,
although they are more of draft type. They are hardy and enduring. They are
small in stature with a long back and well developed skeleton. Their legs are
short. Their head is of medium length,
Old English Black Horse
Old English Black, or Old Kladruby, are an extinct horses
developed in Britain.
During the Norman Conquest of 1066, the brittish took some
of the Great Horses from the mainland Europe across the English Channel and
crossbred them with native mares. Eventually, a distinct breed developed that
was known as the Old English Black Horse.
Despite the name, they were not a color breed. For a long
period of time, bays and browns were more common in this breed than blacks,
but, there were also roans, grays, and chestnuts among them. The color markings
on the old English black horse were similar to Clydesdale horses, with the
desired pattern being four white stockings and a well-defined bald face.
Oldenburg horses were developed in a small area near
surrounding the province of Oldenburg, Germany in the 16th century.
They horses are multi-talented horses commonly used in dressage, endurance
riding, general riding, hunting, and jumping activities.
Oldenburg horses were originally developed as a strong
carriage horse. They were developed from Spanish, Neopolitan, Barb, Thoroughbred,
and Hannoverian horses. The early Oldenburg horses were well-known for
consistency in conformation, great power, and their magnificent coal black
color. They were also famed for their kind character and extreme willingness to
work under saddle, in front of a carriage, or in the fields. However, as the
need for carriag
Orlov Trotters are Russian
horses known for greet speed and endurance. They were developed in the 1800’s
with the help of Count Alexei Orlov, who operated the Khrenovskoy Stud Farm
situated somewhere near Bobrov, a small town in Russia. Count Orlov cross breed
local mares with English, Danish, and Arabian stallions to development of the
Through the 1800’s Russian nobles frequently rode Orlov Trotter and enjoyed
their durability; however, by the the
twentieth century they became unpopular soon were threatened by extinction. Luckily
a small number proved successful enough at racing and some owners continued to
breed them. Currently around a dozen of them still exist in Voronezh, Ukraine,
and around the S
Orlov-rostopchin Horeses (also called the Russian Saddle
Horses) started their developed in eighteenth century Russia when Count Alexei
Orlov bred Arabian stallions with royal Spanish and Danish mares, as well as
English Thoroughbreds, Dutch Friesians, and other breeds, to produce the Orlov
Trotter in the late 1700s.
But in addition to his Trotters, Count Orlov also used some
of his same foundation Arabians to produce a saddle horse. Orlov Riding Horses,
as they were called, averaged about 16 hands with strong, athletic bodies, but
also featured dished heads, swanlike necks and an elegant look. They were
At the same time, a rival breeder, Count F.V. Rostopchin was
crossing his ow
Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger horses are representatives of
a group of horse breeds primarily from continental Europe called heavy
warmbloods. The breed has two names because the same horse was bred in two
marshy regions in the most north-western part of Germany: East Frisia and the
former grand duchy of Oldenburg. The name "Alt-Oldenburger" - alt
meaning "old" - simply distinguishes this horse from its descendant,
the modern Oldenburg, which is bred for sport.
The AO/OF is bred by preservationists to fit the pre-World
War model. Unlike the registries of the sport horses that followed them, their
studbook is partly-closed. However, external evaluation and performance testing
of the breeding stock is still a ke
Padang Ponies are from Sumatra Island, Indonesia. They are
one of several ponies found in Indonesia. Among the others are Batak (Deli),
Bali, Gayoe, Java, Sumba or Sumbawa, Sandalwood, and Timor ponies.
Padang Ponies are small but strong, versatile, have good
endurance, and are even tempered. They stand approximately 12.2-13 hh at the
withers. They have small heads, small ears, a short, muscular neck, deep chest,
sloping croup, sloping shoulder, good coupling, strong back, slight builds, and
light legs. They come is all colors. They have thick manes and tails.
American Paint Horses
are highly valued for their color and markings, but also a favorite for their
unique refinement and intelligence. They have long been used in performance
competitions as a show horse.
American Paint Horses
comes in various colors, including bay, chestnut, black, palomino, gray,
buckskin, and blue roan. Plus they have distinctive white markings. The marks
vary in size but the patterns are standard. The two predominant coat patterns
of Paint Horses, the overo and tobiano, are distinguished by the position of
the white coloring on the body.
Overo (Spanish, for “like
an egg”) patterned horses have white spots extending across their back between
the withers and the tail. Typically, a
The term Palomino does not refer to a specific breed of
horses but to a type of color. The Palomino coloring is evident in a number of
breeds. There are various theories where the name Palomino comes from, one
suggests that it comes from Juan de Palomino who received a golden colored
horse from Cortes.
The origin of the Palomino is not clear as golden colored
horses are found all over the world. Works of art dating back many centuries
depict such horses in Asia, Japan and several European countries. The Spanish
Queen Isabella encouraged the breeding of golden horses, as a result in Spain
they are often referred to as Isabellas. In North America Palominos were
imported by the Spanish Conquistadores. This type of
Paso Fino means ''fine
step''. Paso Fino horses are a naturally gaited light horse breed dating
back to horses imported to the Caribbean from Spain. Paso Fino horses are
prized for their smooth, natural, four-beat, lateral ambling gait; they are used
in many disciplines, but are especially popular for trail riding.
In the United States two main groups of horses are popularly
called "Paso Fin" One, also known as the Pure Puerto Rican Paso
Fino (PPR), originated in Puerto Rico. The other, often called the Colombian
Paso Fino or Colombian Criollo Horse (CCC), developed in Colombia.
Paso Fino horses are a blend of Barb, Spanish Jennet, and
Andalusian horses. They were bred by Spanish land owners in Puerto Rico and
Pentro Hores were developed
in Molise, Italy. Originally they were a beast of burden, for herding other animals.
Today they are used chiefly for riding and as a working animal. They have a nervous
temperament but at the same time docile.
Percheron heavy horses, originally known as Norman Percheron,
are one of the best-known European horse breeds. They originated in the district
of Perche, to the north and west of Normandy in France.
They never achieved the popularity in England of the Clydesdale
and Shire heavies, and although quite a number were imported into Britain – especially
in the late 1800s – they were believed not to have the strength and stamina of the
However, the Percheron found favor in the United States as a
heavy draught animal, but a good deal of its popularity there is believed to have
been due to its predominant grey color.
Percheron horses are more like Suffolk horses than other British
The true Salernitano
horse originated from the plain lying between the Sele and the Calore (Salerno -
Campania). But, as well as this breed, another type was also raised, which came
to be known as the “razza governativa di Persano” (the ruling breed of Persano).
Established in 1762
by the Bourbon king, Charles III, it was the result of crossing mares of largely
eastern origin with Andalusian Arab stallions In 1874 the government sought to suppress
the breed and all examples of it were sold at public auction. But in 1900 it was
re-established, using mares with a good combination of characteristics and proven
to be good for riding. These were selected from various cavalry regiments and mated
with two stallions: J
Peruvian Paso horses, or just Peruvian Horses, are light
saddle horse known for their smooth ride. They are distinguished by a natural, four-beat,
lateral gait called the paso llano.
Because of the shared word Paso, a close relationship
between the Peruvian Paso and the Paso Fino breed is incorrectly assumed.
"Paso" simply means "step," in Spanish, and does not imply
a common breed or origin. Although the two breeds share ancestors in the Old
World, and have some similarities, they were developed independently for
different purposes. The two breeds are different and easily distinguishable.
The Peruvian is somewhat larger, deeper in the body and wider. The Paso Fino is
not bred for "termino" in its stride.
Pindos ponies, also known as Thessalian Ponies, come from
Greece, mostly around Thessaly. In the third century the Greek poet Oppian wrote
that these ponies were “most noted for beauty, courage, and endurance”.
Pindos Ponies are rather agile animals. They are also
considered frugal and surefooted. Having a surefooted horse equates a very easy
journey for those seeking a means to travel inexpensively with a dependable
creature. They have been utilized for agriculture, pack, harness duties, and of
course, riding. They can be found in Greece, Albania, Macedonia, and other
areas of the Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea.
They have a reputation for being consistent and easy to
train. At times, they may
Pintabians are graceful, animated horses that are known for
their beauty, stamina, versatility, and good disposition. Although Pintabians
can also be registered as Pintos, they are more specifically referred to as an
Arabian-type horse with spots. Pintabians have tobiano markings and over 99
percent Arabian blood. They became officially recognized in 1992 when the
Pintabian Horse Registry was established.
While its tobiano markings are one of its distinguishing
characteristics, the Pintabian is not a color breed. Arabian does not have a
spotted coat. In order to have a color pattern, there was a tobiano pinto, 7
generations ago that was crossed with an Arab. The tobiano color pattern is
defined as non
Pleven horses are competition horses with a natural jump and
Pleven horses were developed in 1898 in the Klementina stud
(now called the Georgi Dimitrov Agricultural Center) in Bulgaria. Plevens are
mostly Anglo-Arab, but Gidran stallions were later added to the breed. They
were officially recognized in 1951, and English Thoroughbred blood was further
added to add refinement and size to Plevens.
The breed is still selectively bred throughout Bulgaria, and
an effort is being made to increase their size, which would make it more
attractive as an international sport horse.
The Pleven''s head has a straight profile, a long, muscular
neck, and a nice top line. They
Poitevin (also known as Mulassier "mule-breeder",
Poitevin Mulassier, or Trait Mulassier) are a draft horse from the Poitou area
of France. They are a late-maturing breed with strong bones, known for its calm
nature. They are found in many solid coat colors, the result of crossbreeding
with several other European draft breeds throughout its history, and are the
only French draft horse to be found in bay dun. Today, Poitevins are used
mainly for driving, although some are used for riding and equine therapy.
Poitevin stallions were generally sold as two-year-olds at
the summer fair in Vendee and the winter fair in Saint-Maixent, as well as to
horse merchants in Berry, Beauce, Perche, and the Midi. In these areas,
Pony of the Americas
The Pony of the Americas originated in Iowa, US. They are
all related to one horse named the Black Hand. They were development by breeding
an Appaloosa Arab horse with a Shetland. Black Hand was the horse of an
attorney named was Les Boomhower. Les gave the horse the name for the markings
situated on their quarters. Today they can be found in Minnesota, Iowa,
Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, and other Midwestern states.
Ponies of the Americas are very smart horses with a calm and
giving temperament. They are gentle and can be trusted to travel on their own
They can stand up to thirteen hands tall, with the vast
majority of them coming in just under eleven or twelve hands. They
Pottok horses originate from the Basque region of France.
They have been in demand for quite some time and are considered one of the
three main native horse breeds. Their history comes from the Magdalenian types
of horses, which were dated all the way back to seven thousand B.C. They were
once considered a very wild horse but have since become domesticated.
Just as their popularity began to grow, they were hurt by
the high demand for horses that were larger for agricultural purposes. Experts
believe that at some point there were only a mere 150 Pottok horses left.
However today yhey are popular due to a gentile nature. They have been featured
in films and have also been serving as a mascot for a rugby team.
Pryor Mountain Mustang
Pryor Mountain Mustangs are a substrain of Mustang considered to be genetically unique
and one of the few strains of horses verified by DNA analysis to be descended
from the original Colonial Spanish Horses brought to the Americas by the
Spanish. They live on the Pryor Mountains Wild Horse Range located in the Pryor
Mountains of Montana and Wyoming in the United States, and are the only Mustang herds remaining
in Montana. They are protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros
Act of 1971 (WFRHBA) and managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), who
has set the optimum herd number at 120 animals. Genetic studies have revealed
that the herd exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity and a low degree of
Quaggas are an extinct subspecies of plains zebra that lived
in South Africa until the 19th century.
It was long thought to be a completely distinct species, but
genetic studies have shown it to be the southernmost subspecies of plains
zebra. They are considered particularly close to Burchell''s zebra.
The name, Quagga, was named for a sound that they make, it sounded
like "kwa-ha-ha". They are believed to have been around 257 cm (8 ft
5 in) long and 125–135 cm (4 ft 1 in–4 ft 5 in) tall at the shoulder. They were
distinguished from other zebras by their limited pattern of primarily brown and
white stripes, mainly on the front part of their body. Their rear was brown and
without stripes, and therefore more horse-
Quarab horses are an exclusive combination of Arabian and
Paint or Quarter Horse breeding. They are a wonderful blend of Pleasure type
and Stock Type. A Quarab can be "custom made" for your choice of
style and movement, size and athleticism, and a wonderful temperament to go
The Quarab''s body type may resemble more the stock-horse
type with muscular forearm and gaskin and well-rounded hip, or the Arabian type
with long, well-arched neck, long barrel, and level croup. The head usually
shows refinement, large eyes, wide forehead, and slight to extreme dish in the
face, depending on the ratio of Arabian to Quarter Horse blood. Height ranges
from 14 to 16 hands.
Quarabs can exce
American Quarter Horses are most likely North America’s most
popular breed. With QH fans worldwide the AQHA is the largest breed registry.
The AQHA states there are over five million registered American Quarter Horses
American Quarter Horses are stout, quick, and compact. Some
have been clocked at speeds of 55mph. They are used in a number of equestrian
disciplines, primarily associated with Western rodeo. They have a natural “cow
sense”, giving them the ability to work well with cattle. Their unique
characteristics and breeding history have earned them the nicknames “America’s
Horse” and “the World’s Fastest Athlete”.
In the 17th century, North American colonists on the eastern
seaboard began to c
Racking Horses come from the Southern United States, mainly
Alabama. They are known for a distinctive sugarfoot gait.It is believed that
they are related to Tennessee Walking horses. An Alabama business person
created this horse and worked diligently to maintain them for years to come.
Their ancestors were first bred on southern plantations
prior to the American Civil War. They could be ridden comfortably for hours
because of their smooth, natural gait. They were also bred for a good
disposition, intelligence, and versatility. Their development was similar to
that of the Tennessee Walking Horse, also popular in the southeastern US. In
the late 1800s, horse shows became increasingly popular in the southeastern
Retuertas horse (also known as Caballo de las Retuertas or
Caballo de las Retuertas de Donana) are a rare horse indigenous to the
Andalusia region of Spain. They are believed to closely resemble the ancient
Iberian horses that populated Spain before being domesticated. They are now now
found only in the Donana National Park in the provinces of Huelva and Sevilla,
and in The Biological Reserve "Campanarios de Azaba" in Espeja
(Salamanca province) a part of which is the research reserve of the Consejo
Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, the Spanish National Research Council.
According to a genetic study by the CSIC, the Retuertas horse is one of the
oldest European breeds.
Rhenish-German Cold-Blood ( Rhineland)
Rhenish German Coldblood (also known as Rheinisch Deutsches
Kaltblut, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Kaltblut, Rhineland Heavy Draft, and
Rhenish-German Coldblood) are a heavy draught horse from the Rhineland area of
western Germany. They were bred in the second part of the nineteenth century,
principally at the Prussian state stud at Schloss Wickrath in Wickrathberg, now
part of Mönchengladbach in North Rhine-Westphalia.
Rhenish German Coldblood are usually roan in color although
sometimes chestnut can be seen. They have either black points or a flaxen mane
and tail. On average they are 16 to 16.3 hand high and weight 1860 to 2200 lbs.
They have a Plain head with a short thick neck and a wide,
short body. T
Riwoches are very small dun-colored horses from an isolated
region of Tibet in 1995. Previously unknown to science, these small horses may
be an evolutionary link between prehistoric wild horses and modern domestic
horses, though they could also be a domesticated variety that reverted to a
small size and primitive coloring.
They were discovered in 1995 in an isolated, 27 kilometres
(17 mi) long valley reached only by crossing a 5,000 metres (16,000 ft)
mountain pass. They were spotted by a team of explorers led by the French
ethnologist Michel Peissel. While on an expedition to study another
newly-discovered horse breed that Peissel had located in 1993, the Nangchen
horse, he came upon a number of small horses in an isolated
Rocky Mountain Horses were developed in the 1800’s in the
Kentucky, US. Rocky Mountain horses have a brown shaded coat with lots of shine
to their frames, making them simple to recognize. They are a very stable-yet-surefooted horse with a
unique four feet gait and a long bushy tail. Many farmers found great joy in
owning one or two Rocky Mountain Horses so that they could easily utilize their
strength for pulling plows and helping on the farm. One gentleman in
particular, Sam Tuttle, is noted for his Old Tobe, which was a stallion that
went on to become quite the champion for the southwest. Once the word got out
that they could be used for climbing the mountain sides with ease and as farm
hands, their popularity rapidly incre
Rottaler horses were originally bred in the Rott valley of
Bavaria, and were used as the foundation for the Bavarian Warmblood. Systematic
breeding in the region dates back to 1558, when the first duke, Albrecht IV,
imported popular Neapolitan and Spanish stallions.
In keeping with the times, Rottalers were expected to be
versatile enough to pull the plow during the week and the carriage to church on
Sundays. Throughout the 19th century, Anglo-Norman, Cleveland Bay, and
Oldenburg horses were imported to keep the Rottaler vibrant, and by 1906 the
Rottaler Warmblood Horse Breeding Association was formed. In 1963, the breeding
aim was redirected towards the production of more agile, sensitive riding horses,
Russian Heavy Draft
Russian Heavy Draft horses originated in Russia and the Ukraine.
They are considered to be a younger style of horses, one that began in the
middle of the eighteen hundreds. The state studs were noted as Khrenov and
Derkul and were mated with local mares, as well as the Ardennes breeds. The
Russian Heavy Draft was once even used in the Paris Exhibition in 1900. In very
little time at all, the breed was introduced to newer blood lines, such as the
Brabant, Percheron, and the famous Orlov Trotter. The breed went on to be
virtually extinct once the first World War was over, and then again following
the Russian Civil War. Used for agricultural and lighter draft work, they
continued to expand the breed. The style went on to be used to cr
originated from the cross-breeding of native Russian Orlov Trotter horses with
imported American Standardbred stock around 1890. The breeding goal was to
develop a Russian racing horse that could compete with American Standardbred
horses. While Russian Trotters were very successful, they were eventually bred
to their original styles of Orlov Trotters and Standardbred variations around
the middle of the nineteenth century.
By 1950 the Russian
Trotter breed was considered established, although some cross-breeding with
American stallions continued. A stud-book was established in 1927. Russian
Trotters are widely found, from the Baltic to Siberia. In 1989 there were
approximately 290,000 in the USSR,
The first horses on Sable Island, off the coast of Nova
Scotia, Canada were brought to the island during the late 1700s. Many people
believe that they arrived on the island from many shipwrecks. However, this
romantic notion is false - they were in fact intentionally left on Sable to
graze and multiply, and were most likely seized from Acadians during their
expulsion from Nova Scotia at the hands of the British. Although often referred
to as ponies due to their small size, they have a horse phenotype. One of the
first horses on the island for which there was a record of importation was the
stallion, Jolly, who was taken there in 1801. Their ancestry is unknown, but
they are related in some way to Spanish horses.
The Salerno, or Salernitano,
horse is a saddle-horse, originally from the plains of Battipaglia, Eboli and Paestum,
in the province of Salerno (Campania). It is a very ancient breed, which was improved
during the period of Spanish domination by crossing it with Andalusian and Oriental
horses. It has also been used to improve Russian breeding stock. The Salernitano
horse was once used by the army. In the second half of the nineteenth century it
was crossed with pure-bred English horses, which changed its original appearance.
It was chosen to help produce special Italian cross-breeds, such as Posillipo, Merano
and Fiorello, winners at the Olympics between the years 1956 and 1972.
This is a horse for
riding, very popular in
Samolaco are a rare breed of horse originating from
Valchiavenna and Valtellina, in Lombardy, northern Italy. They get their name
from the town of Samolaco, near Chiavenna in the province of Sondrio. They are
gravely endangered; however, they are not among the fifteen indigenous horse
"breeds of limited distribution" recognized by the AIA, the Italian
breeders'' association. The population is listed in DAD-IS as over 12 in 1994,
and under 100 in 1998; one further example of the breed may have been
identified during a television broadcast.
Samolaco horses are thought to originate from crossing
between indigenous horses and Spanish horses abandoned in about the 17th
century by the garrisons of Spanish fortificati
dei Nebrodi, or San Fratello, horse is an Italian breed originating in Messina (Sicily).
The account of its
origins is of great historical and sociological interest. It was not a “padronal
breed”, raised by a noble or baronial family enjoying ascendancy during a certain
historical period, but rather a population of horses connected to the people and
history of a particular part of Sicily. Today, as 1000 years ago, the Sanfratellano
di Nebrodi horse lives free and well-protected in its “cradle of origin”, a Natural
Park extending for 87,00 hectares and containing 21 inhabited communes. The breed
is the subject of “studies and research”, undertaken, in particular, by the “Istituto
Sandalwood Ponies originated in Indonesia, on the Sumba and
Sumbawa Islands. They are named after the Sandalwood trees, which are a major
export of the country. Sandalwood ponies are one of the finest in the country,
partly due to the great amount of Arabian blood. They are very nice children''s
ponies. Sandalwood Ponies have been exported to Australia and other Southeast
Asian countries for use as racing ponies. They have been crossed with
Thoroughbred blood and are used in racing on Cambodian and Thai racing tracks.
Sandalwoods have incredible endurance. They are very easy to
manage. Generally they have a nice head, small ears, a short, muscular neck,
and a deep chest with a sloping shoulder. Their back is usually
Sanhe means three rivers in Chinese. Where these three
rivers meet is some of the best forage or grassland in all of China. Sanhe
horses are found in the northeast of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and
are used mainly for riding and pulling loads or carting. They are considered
the most developed of the Chinese horse breeds.
During the Liao dynasty, about 1000 AD, the region was known
for the quality of its horses, some of which were sent to the emperors by
nomadic tribes. During the Qing dynasty seven hundred years later, the Soulun
breed was bred in this area. The Soulun were famous for their appearance and
performance under a saddle. These horses were used as cavalry horses against
Sarcidano Horses ( orCavallo del Sarcidano) are a rare breed
of semi-feral horse originating from the Altopiano del Sarcidano ("plateau
of Sarcidano") in the commune of Laconi in the Oristano province of
Sardinia, Italy. They are one of the fifteen indigenous horse "breeds of
limited distribution" recognized by the AIA, the Italian breeders''
association. Although they should never exceed 148 cm (14.2 hands) at the
withers, they are officially considered a cavallo or horse, and not a pony.
No use of the Sarcidano horse is documented. In 2001 the
possibility of starting a few horses for use in trekking were considered.
Sarcidano horses appear to have ancient Spanish ancestry in
common with th
Schleswig (also known as Schleswiger Heavy Draft, or Schleswiger
Kaltblut) horses are from the Duchy of Schleswig, Germany. They are thought to
be the origin of the Schleseiger Draft Horse along with the Jutland Heavy Draft
Horse. Although not a certainty, the Schleswiger Heavy Draft''s ancestors not
only worked in agriculture tilling and pulling, but the Schleswigers probably
descended from the large war horses of the Middle Ages.
In 1860 an imported English stallion, Oppenheim LXII, either
a pure-bred or a part-bred Suffolk Punch, was introduced, and became the foundation
stallion of the breed. In 1888 the breeding of warmbloods and coldbloods was
separated, and in 1891 various associations of coldblood breeders
Sella Italiano horses were developed in Italy. The Italian
Government has passed a law that created a stud book for the new breed. The
breed is blending the remnant indigenous Italian breeds of Maremmano,
Salernitano, and Persano horses with Anglo Arabo Sardo, Purosangue Orientale,
Arabian and Thoroughbreds. The progeny of said horses can be registered as
Sella Italiano if they can pass a “performance test”. Furthermore, the stud
book is open to other European warmbloods if they can pass the performance test
and be approved by the breed registry. They are intended to produce a sport
horse which can compete successfully at the international level.
minimum height at the withers is set at 156 centimetres (15.1 hands; 61 i
Selle Francais horses comes from France, where they are popular
as a racing horse and have an incredible ability for high jumping. One in
particular, the Selle Francais Baloubet De Rouet, was the winner of three World
Show Jumping Championships. Over time they have been cross-bred Norfolk Trotters
and English Thoroughbreds. Anglo Norman horses and French Trotters were the
result of all some of the breeding. Over time various styles of the Selle
Francais horse have been developed for drafting and also for riding. A specific
horse named Orange Peel was placed into the blood lines to increase the riding
Selle Francais orses are full of energy and extremely smart.
They are also considered to pe
Senner, or Senne, horses are a critically-endangered German
riding horse. They are believed to be the oldest saddle-horse breed in Germany,
and are documented at least as far back as 1160. They are named for the Senne,
a natural region of dunes and moorland in Nordrhein-Westfalen, in western
Germany, and live in feral herds there and in the Teutoburger Forest to the
Senner horses were bred principally as a riding horse, even
in times when working horses were in demand; they were also used as a carriage
horse. Senner stallions stood at the royal stud of Weil bei Esslingen in
Baden-Württemberg and at the state stud of Lipizza in the Austrian Empire. Today,
they are competition or recreational riding.
Shagya Arabian horses were developed in the Austro-Hungarian
Empire during the 19th century at the Bábolna, Mezohegyes, Radautz, Piber, and
Topolcianky stud ranches. Today can be found in Slovenia, Austria, Croatia,
Serbia, Romania, Poland, and Czech Republic.
Shagya Arab horses originated in Hungary and were developed
to create a much taller and sleeker version of the traditional Arab styles. One
of the major founding sires was Shagya (hence the breed’s name), a gray Arabian
(or perhaps part-Arabian) stallion with some ancestors of the Kehilan and
Siglavy strains. Born in Syria in 1810, he was taller than the average Arabian
of the time, standing 15.2 1/2 hands (62.5 inches, 159 cm) at the withers.
Shetland Ponies are the smallest of the British breeds, and unlike
other pony breeds, do not increase in height when bred on more favorable land and
in a milder climate.
The early 1800s saw a demand for this breed from outside the
Shetland Islands (Scotland) where it developed initially this was mainly for circus
animals and children’s ponies. However, with the abolition of child labor in the
coal mines demand grew even further and large numbers of ponies were sent to England
for the mines. Buyers from the US had also become interested in the breed and large
consignments were shipped across the Atlantic.
In 1822 it was estimated there were 10,000 ponies on the Shetland
Islands but by the 1890s this figure was d
Shire Horses are the largest – and among the oldest – of the
British horse breeds. Among its ancestors were the chariot horses of the Britons
– described and admired greatly by Julius Caesar two thousand years ago.
For centuries its primary role was as a War Horse (its original
name). It has also been known as the Great Horse and the Strong Horse.
Strengthened by crossing with horses imported from Europe (e.g.
Friesian Horeses), the breed was steadily increased in size and strength as the
chain mail and then plate armor of its riders increased in heaviness. This attained
its greatest weight in the reign of Henry VIII. An Elizabethan writer estimated
that the average Great Horse could carry up to four hundredweig
This is an Italian breed,
originally from eastern Sicily.
We should really refer
to it as a breed of horse with a definite oriental stamp, rather than as a pure
and distinct breed.
In fact, we can individuate
two distinct ethnic groups: that originating from the eastern parts of the island
(Catania, Siracuse and Ragusa) has more distinctly dolichomorphic characteristics,
while the group from the interior is more mesomorphic in form. The latter also has
more of a tendency towards deformed or irregular characteristics.
It is a saddle-horse, used
for riding in the countryside, or for jumping. In the past it was used to pull carriages,
or as a working horse. It is tough, powerful and tenacious.
Silesian (or Kon slaski, or Slunski kun) horses are warmblooded
horses from the area of historic Silesia, which lies mostly within modern
Poland. They are the heaviest of the Polish warmblood breeds, and have been
influenced mainly by Thoroughbred and Oldenburg horses, and partly by East
Friesian and German halfbreds. The Oldenburg influence was particularly
pronounced after World War II, when imported stallions were used to keep the
breed from becoming extinct. Two types are recognised in the breed standard, an
old and a new.
At 3 years old, stallions of the old type stand 160 - 170
centimetres (15.3–16.3 hands) at the withers, mares about 2 cm less; the girth
is 190 - 210 cm (75 - 83 in), and the cannon-bone circumference
Single footing horses come in many varieties, sizes, colors
and coat patterns. They must be of good temperament, willing, have endurance,
easy to train, have good gait, and be smooth at all speeds of gait. They are a
light breed with a solid conformation. They must be able to perform an even
4-beat gait. Some are able to reach speeds of up to 20 mph. At the fastest
speeds these horses will be traveling with one foot on the ground at a time,
thus the name "single-footing." The horse will not have a head nod or
bob. The Single Footers generally travel with head up, "star gazing."
They also tend to round their backs instead of arch them. "Many may
stretch out, lowering their heads at the racing single-foot. The horse may have
Skyros Ponies are believed to be descended from horses
brought to the island of Skyros during the 5th to 8th centuries BCE by Athenian
colonists. It is possible that they were used by Alexander the Great in his
conquests, and also possible that they are the horses depicted in the friezes
of the Parthenon.
They developed mainly as semi-feral horses in the
mountainous area on the southern part of the island, although individuals were
caught and tamed by farmers for agricultural uses. The advances in agricultural
mechanization during the 1960''s called into question the survival of the breed,
as they were no longer needed for farm work and their numbers were already low.
The prevalence of feral donkeys in the same
Slovak Sport Pony
Slovak Sport Ponies are raised in the areas of Vel''ké Pole
and Nitra, Slovakia, and were developed from Thoroughbred, Arabian and Slovak
Warmblood breeds crossed with Welsh and German riding ponies.
A genealogical record was established in 1984. They are
mainly gray and sometimes black. Adult males and females weigh on average 354
kg and 248 kg with a height at the cross of 143 cm and 140 cm respectively.
They are on average 13.3 – 14.2 hands height.
Sokolsky, or Sokolka, horses originated in Poland. They are
used for heavy draft and farm work, and are a tough breed with great stamina.
Sokolsky horses were developed in the 1900s, and has been
heavily influenced by Belgian, Ardennes, Norfolk, Dole/Gudbrandsdal, and
Anglo-Norman stock. The result of this breeding is a heavy draft horse that is
not excessively large, with stamina, toughness, and good gaits.
Sokolsky horses usually stands between 15 and 16 hands high,
and are chestnut or bay. They have a slightly heavy head with a straight
profile, set on a long, broad, and muscular neck. Their shoulders are
well-formed and sloping, resulting in their good gaits. They tend to have deep
Somali Ponies are from Somalia in East Africa. They are genetically
horses but are considered Ponies because they are pony sized (only 13-13 1/2 hh).
The severe climate and poor food sources, in Somalia, have contributed to their
smaller size. They are bred by most tribes excluding the Esa and Géri. The
Dolbanhanta tribe is the breeder of Somali ponies.
They have heavy heads, short, thick necks, with inharmonious
conformations. They are able to carry light weight very well and for long
distances. They have extremely hard hooves; some say harder than the Arabian
horses. They can gallop and perform better without shoes because of the terrain
and the nature of their feet. They can go three days or longer
Sorraia horses come from Portugal and Spain. They received
their name from where they where originally bred: the Raia and the Sor rivers
that flow between Spain and Portugal. They were initially utilized for herding bulls
all over Iberia. They look similar to Przewalski’s horse or Tarpan horses, and
are often mistaken for them. They are found all along the Iberian Peninsula.
Many experts have taken into account that these Sorraia horses could be
responsible for many other horse breeds, even some bred in North Africa. They
are currently undergoing a preservation project. They can be found in Libson as
well as all along the Atlantic coast of Portugal. There were two variations of
the Sorraia horses that were taken to North America so
South German Coldblood
South German coldblood, or Suddeutsches Kaltblut, Horses are
descended from the Austrian Noriker.
In the end of the 19th century the Noriker was introduced to
Bavaria. Holstein and Oldenburg breeds were added to the breeding program in
Upper Bavaria. In Lower Bavaria Oldenburg, Cleveland Bay, Clydesdales, and
Belgian Draft Horses were used as outcrosses by those breeders. Over time the
German breeders used the original Noriker blood to upgrade their breeding
program. The South German Horse was first named the Pinzgauer Noriker because
it was bred in the region of Salzburg Province of Austria. In time, the German
bred breed became known as the South German Heavy Horse.
Mainly bred in Bavaria and Baden
Soviet Heavy Draft
Soviet Heavy Draft horses originated in Russia at the end of
the 19th century and became established by the 1940''s. The need for a strong
but relatively fast draft horse breed was recognized in Russia during the
latter part of the 1800’s . The initial breeding took place at the Khrenov
stud, and from there expanded to the Pochinkozsk stud.
They were created by crossing native mares with imported
Belgian stallions. The native mares were a mix of Percheron, Ardennes, Suffolk
Punch, Danish and various saddle horse breeds.
By 1936, during the Soviet era, three state breeding centres
were established: Pochinkovsk, Mordovian and Gavrilovo-Posad. Alexandroz farm
in the Vladimir region and Yaroslavl farm branche
Spanish Barb horses originated in America. They are a cross
between Barb and Andalusian horses. They are known to be extremely resilient,
good riders, and possess an immaculate cow sense. Andalusian ancestry has given
them good conformation and responsiveness.
They average in the range of 13.3 to 15 hands high. They are
found in bay, dark bay, and black, with grays appearing because of Andalusian
influence. Their head is narrow and refined with a convex profile, their neck
is arched and their withers pronounced. Their thick body is indicative of its staying
power, although they have thin legs, that are not. Overall, they are an elegant
mix of the Andalusian and Barb horses.
The original Spanish Jennet was a type of horse more than a
distinct breed, and became extinct. However there have been effort to recreate
a colored variety of gaited horse that resembles the historical Jennet or
The Jennet was a smooth-gaited type of horse popular in the
Middle Ages, known for their presence, style and smooth ride. They were often
ridden by European nobility. Some early Jennets sported pinto or leopard
Most of the Medieval horses bred during the 1500''s in Spain
and elsewhere were not "breeds" in the modern sense of the word. The
Jennet from Spain became more uniform in type due to a single geographical
region producing them as well a
Spanish-Norman horses are considered to be an exclusive and
rare breed. Genetically Spanish-Norman horses are a blending of Andalusian and
Percheron horses. They are suited for many disciplines including fighting. They
were used on the battlefields in Europe by noblemen.
In 1991 the Spanish-Norman Horse Registry was created to
record the pedigrees of this special breed. The Registry was started by Allan
and Linda Osterman Hamid of Hamid Hill Farm, Ltd., Woodbury, Connecticut.
They stand between 15.5hh and 17 hands. Their colors include
gray, bay, and black. They are an extremely athletic breed, are calm, docile,
intelligent, easy to train, willing, have long arched necks, short backs, solid
Spiti Ponies (also known as Chamurthi Ponies) are a gaited
pony from India. They are indigenous to the Pin Valley which is found in a
Buddhist tribal district called Spiti.
Spiti is a unique and isolated area located in the state of
Himachal Pradesh in north-western India, a high altitude desert which is closed
off from the rest of the country for 6 months of the year by snow on the high
passes which access this region. To the east lies Tibet, in the west is another
remote district often linked with Spiti, called Lahaul, to the north is the
famous high altitude area known as Ladakh, and to the south lie the foothills
of the Himalayas. Once the high passes are crossed, you enter a completely
Spotted Saddle are light riding horses from the United
States. They were developed from small gaited pinto ponies of Spanish ancestry.
These were crossed with larger American breeds such as the Morgan and
Standardbred, developed after the American Revolution, to increase size while
retaining coloration and the desired gait. After the American Civil War,
additional gaited blood was added, with contributing breeds including the
Tennessee Walking Horse, Missouri Fox Trotter, Paso Fino, and Peruvian Paso.
Mustangs from the American West were also incorporated. Originally developed in
central Tennessee, and selectively bred for pinto coloration, they were used
for general pleasure and trail riding. The result is a colorful, smooth-gaite
Spotted Saddle are light riding horses from the United
States. They were developed from small gaited pinto ponies of Spanish ancestry.
These were crossed with larger American breeds such as the Morgan and
Standardbred, developed after the American Revolution, to increase size while
retaining coloration and the desired gait. After the American Civil War,
additional gaited blood was added, with contributing breeds including the
Tennessee Walking Horse, Missouri Fox Trotter, Paso Fino, and Peruvian Paso.
Mustangs from the American West were also incorporated. Originally developed in
central Tennessee, and selectively bred for pinto coloration, they were used
for general pleasure and trail riding. The result is a colorful, smooth-gaite
Suffolk Punch horses have a long and well-established history
as a draught animal of English origin. Arthur Young, one of the earliest writers
on British livestock, and who himself came from Suffolk, was the first to refer,
in 1771, to the area’s ''noble breed of horfes'', as a distinct breed. He noted that
even in his childhood (he was born in 1741) the Suffolk was referred to as ‘The
Old Breed.’ It is almost certainly the oldest existing pure breed of draught horse
to have originated in England.
William Youatt in 1837, and David Low in 1845, both equally renowned
as recorders of early livestock in Britain, also wrote enthusiastically of the Suffolk,
noting its distinctive ''stout or punchy form'', with large head and de
Swedish Ardennes horses were developed in Sweden when the
Count C.G. Wrangle brought large Ardennes horses to the country in 1872. By
1880 most parts of south and central Sweden had imported or crossed Ardennes.
These heavier horses were bred with the horse of the Swedish countryside. The
resulting horse was very mobile and marked by longevity. So successful was the
breeding effort that a stud book was opened in 1901.
For years, the wild horse population of Sweden was
indiscriminately crossed with other imported breeds. Even when studs began
focusing their breeding efforts, however, horses were chosen more for their
outer looks than well examined conformation standards. By 1874, this had all
changed and examination
Swedish Warmblood horses were developed at Stromsholm and
Flyinge. They are descended from imported stock in the 17th century from
Denmark, Germany, England, Hungary, France, Russia, Spain, and Turkey. These
horses were extraordinarily varied, but along the way became the Swedish
The decade from 1920 to 1930 was an important decade in the
development of the breed. The three most noticeable influences on the breed
were Tribun, Hamlet, and Thoroughbred Hamplemann, all Hanoverians Schwabliso.
After 1945, the Trakehners Heristal, Heinfried, Anno, and Polarstern had a
dominant effect upon the breed. Heristal was a descendant of the great English
racehorse Hyperion. He produced 15 stallions and 44 mares that were entere
Taishu (taishu uma) or Tsushima (Tsushima uma) are small rare
Japanese horses from Tsushima Island in the Korea Strait, in Nagasaki
They are an ancient breed, believed to date back to the
eighth century. In 1920, there were more than 4000 of them, but only about 65
remain today. Due to their gentle nature and strong willingness to obey, Tiasho
are often ridden by farmers’ wives and children. Nevertheless, they are also
known for endurance and ability to survive on little food and in severe
weather, and may even be used for light draft.
Tarpans are a now extinct wild horse from Russia. The last
two on the planet died within a decade of each other in the late 19th century.
Essentially the Tarpan is one of the few wild equines that
existed during prehistoric times and they are thought to be the ancestors of
most modern breeds that come from the Russian Steppes. Originally they were
found throughout Eastern Europe and western Russia and became the foundation
stock for many civilizations along the eastern Mediterranean. For thousands of
years they were a mainstay in many cultures and their blood is a part of a wide
variety of modern breeds.
They were hunted to extinction in a similar manner as the
modern Mustang is today in the western
Tawleed horses are from the mountainous areas of the Sudan.
They are extremely easy to keep. They are strong and sturdy with excellent
endurance. They are good riding horses.
A light horse breed founded in middle Tennessee, the Tennessee
Walking Horse is a composition of Narragansett and Canadian Pacer, Standardbred,
Thoroughbred, Morgan, and American Saddlebred stock. Originally bred as a utility
horse, this breed is an ideal mount for riders of all ages and levels of experience.
The breed easily adapts to English or Western gear, and its calm, docile temperament
combined with naturally smooth and easy gaits insure the popularity of the Tennessee
Walking Horse as the "world''s greatest show, trail, and pleasure horse."
Owning a Tennessee Walking Horse is affordable, with a price
range for every person''s pocketbook. Considering the breed''s easy ride, the companionship,
Tennuvian horses are a cross between Tennessee Walking
Horses and Peruvian Pasos. Although there is a strong chance these two breeds
have been crossed before, the Tennuvian name was officially coined by Paula
Bosner of Colorado.
Paule purchased one of these crosses and immediately fell in
love with the animal, so much so that she sold off her quarter horses and bought
a Peruvian stallion for breeding.
Tennuvian horses have smooth gaits much like Tennessee
Walking Horses; however they are smaller. They have a head much like a Peruvian
Paso Fin small and refined. They are able to gait for long distances, have good
endurance, good hoof, comes in all colors and is comfortable for the rider. The
Tersk, also known as Tersky, horses were founded in Ukraine.
They are primarily used for racing, competition, endurance training, and
sports. They are considered to be calm and very hardy.
Tersk horses were developed sometime during the nineteenth
century as military mounts. That time they were refered to as Streletsky
horses. By the time the twentieth century they suffered a massive decrease in
popularity. There were two variations that survived refered to as Tsilindr and
Tsenitel. In the early nineteen hundreds, around 1925, a brand new breed had
formed. They were noted to be found in the Tersk Stud and that became the new name
from there on. Today they can be found in Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, around the
Thoroughbreds are most commonly associated with horse racing
but they excel in many area. They originated in Britain starting in the late 17th century for speed and racing
with the influence of Arabian bloodlines. Today, they continue to dominate the racing
industry but Thoroughbreds also excel in eventing, show jumping, and dressage. They
come in a variety of solid colors like bay, chestnut, and black and, on very rare
occasions, palomino and pinto. On average, a Thoroughbred stands between 15 and
17 hands high (60” to 68”at the shoulder) and weighs from 1,000 to 1,200 pounds
with a lean build.
There have literally been hundreds of famous thoughbreds
Tebetan Ponies are descended from ancient stock, likely
partly from Mongolian Ponies and Chinese pony breeds, although they have been
bred pure for years. They are are well-regarded by the local people, and they
have been traditionally kept by both wealthy Tibetans and farmers alike, as
well as by the Dalai Lama. They were sent as gifts to Chinese Emperors, especially
during the Ming and Tang dynasties.
As small as they are the ponies are known for their
incredible strength and endurance, for sure-footedness and resilience. Their
heads usually have a pronounced jaw line, straight profile, and small ears and
eyes. The neck is a muscular and a short, the chest is deep, the shoulder is
straight. The ponies have powerf
Timor Ponies evolved on the Indonesian island of Timor, probably
from Indian breeds that were imported to the island. On Timor these ponies are mainly
used for cattle work, as well as for riding, driving, and light farm work.
Timor Ponies are described as being strong, frugal, and agile,
and are lovely natured and intelligent. They have a narrow frame, short back, muscular
neck, prominent withers, and a sloping croup. Their shoulders are straight, and
the legs and feet are strong. Timor ponies usually stand 10-12 hands high (between
about one and 1.2 meters), and are usually brown, black or bay, but may also be
grey. They sometimes have a light colored mane and tail.
Tokara Horses (Tokara uma ) are believed to be indigenous to Japan and are currently raised in the Tokara Islands, a chain of Island in Kagoshima. They are known for their tolerance to heat and have been used for agriculture, conveyance, and sugar cane squeezing.
There are now 107 Tokara ponies, some of them on display at Hirakawa Zoo in Kagoshima.
The Tolfetano horse is
originally from central Italy, and in particular from Monti della Tolfa, the area
between Rome and Viterbo which was once Etruscan.
The breed was already well-known
at the time of the Etruscans. It is very hardy, and still bred in the wild. This
breed is strong, well-built and tough.
Once used as a pack-horse
and for rounding up cattle, it is now normally used for riding in the countryside,
or raised for meat on pasturage unsuitable for cattle.
Tori, or Tori Hobune, horses were developed at the Tori stud
in Estonia from 1890 to 1950. They were developed by crossing native Estonian
mares with European half bred stallions. They were mainly founded by a stallion
named Hetman, whose sire was Stewart, a crossbreed of a Norfolk Trotter and an
Anglo-Norman mare. The Tori breed was formed by breeding Hetman and his sons.
Thus, a valuable breeding nucleus rapidly formed, that slowed as signs of
inbreeding depression were found in the 1930''s. This deteriorated performance
and robustness. To eliminate this inbreeding depression, Toris were crossed
with Breton Post-horse stallions, and as a result, the massive type of Tori
became widespread while the quality of the gaits declined. T
Trait Du Nord
Trait du Nords are heavy draft horses developed and bred in
France. Trait du Nord’s ancestry includes bloodlines from the Ardennes,
Belgian, and Boulonnais breeds, and are sometimes incorrectly referred to as a
branch of Ardennais horses. They became recognized as a separate breed of their
own at the beginning of the 20th century, and the studbook for the Trait du
Nord was established in 1919. Today, although they are still bred in the area
around Lille, in the Pas-de-Calais, the Aisne, the Somme, and the
Seine-et-Marne departments, they are declining in numbers.
They have a reputation for great pulling power and
hardiness, as well a calm disposition. They are considered well-suited to draft
and farm work in hilly
Trakehner Horses (official name: "The East Prussian
Warmblood Horse of Trakehner Origin" ) are the oldest warmblood breed in
the world, with a history spanning amost 300 years. They originated from a
small horse, bred in East Prussia , known as the "Schwaike". The
Schwaike was known for his versatility and endurance. When this breed was
crossed with imported English thoroughbred and Arabian stallions, the resulting
horse was named after the main stud it came from: Trakehnen. They originally
were bred as calvary mounts.
In the early 18th century, King Friedrich Wilhelm I realized
that a new type of cavalry mount was needed as war tactics had changed and
demanded a faster, lighter horse that also posessed power
Turk (also known as Turkmene, Turkmen, or Turkmenian) horses
are an ancient Turkoman breed. They are thought to be extinct in its pure form.
Horses bred in Turkmenistan are still called by the same name; however most
likely the purest descendants of this ancient breed are the Barb, Akhal-Teke,
and Iomud horses. Of the three, Akhal-Teke breeding has been kept the purest
and probably the closest to actual Turkoman blood.
The original Turk horses was a robust animal built for
carrying heavily armed soldiers into battle – this build remains in the breed
On average they were 15 – 16 hands high. Their head was well
proportioned with a straight profile. Their neck was long and lean. Their back
was long an
Unmols are a rare breed of horse from north-weste unjab,
in Pakistan. In 1995 its conservation status was listed by the FAO as
"critical" and they werre described as "nearly extinct".
The subsequent (third) edition of the World Watch List for Domestic Animal
Diversity, published in 2000, does not mention them; nor wre they among the
breeds listed in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources in 2007.
Unmol horses are, or were, usually bay or grey.There are or were a small number
Uzunyayla horses come from the Caucasus. Their origin dates
to 1854 in Turkey. They were bred pure in Turkey until 1930, when Anadolu pony
and Nonius horses were introduced.
Uzunyayla horses have a large head with a concave profile;
their eyes are small; their neck is of medium length; their withers are well
pronounced; their legs are strong with good joints; their pasterns are sloped
and very strong; their feet are well shaped and have a tough horn. They are
usually bay in color. The feathering on their legs are coarse, and their tail
grows very long. They stand between 14.1 and 15.1 hands (57 and 61 inches, 145
and 155 cm) high.
They are very good for riding long distances. Uzunyayla
horses have a good gallop bu
The name of this population
of horses comes from the mountain of the same name located in the high Val d''Enza,
in the province of Reggio Emilia, where the presence of horses has been documented
from the times of the Duke Ferdinand of Bourbon to those of the Serenissimi Farnese
and the Duchy of Maria Louisa of Austria. Even after the unification of Italy and
up to the 1940s these lands continued to supply horses to the army. In the last
forty years the stud farm of Ramiseto and the Borzacchi-Bertoldi stud have continued
with stallions of English derivation and ‘improved’ maremmanos. In the 1960s the
Bertoldis used a Lipizzano stallion and an improved maremmano stallion, from which
the majority of the oldest brood mares making up th
Virginia Highlanders are a small breed of horse with a four-beat
The inspiration for the breed was Pogo, a chestnut stallion
foaled in 1960, a small crossbred horse, thought to have been sired by a Welsh
pony, out of an Arabian/Tennessee Walker mare. He had a natural singlefoot
gait. His owner, William M. Pugh, intrigued by the good-natured, naturally
gaited stallion, developed a breeding program for small gaited horses, by
crossing Pogo and his descendants with other Arabians, Tennessee Walkers,
Morgans, and American Saddlebreds as well as Hackney ponies, and Welsh ponies.
Horses that met Pugh''s criteria for conformation, disposition and gaited
ability were bred on. The registry began with two foundation stal
Vlaamperds are nearly extinct horses that were developed for
draft and riding purposes in South Africa. They were developed in the Western
Cape from a 19th century horse called the Hantam Horse. The Hantam Horse came
about by crossing Arabians, Thoroughbreds, and local Cape mares. More recently,
Friesian stallions were bred with Hantam Mares as were Oldenburgs and Cleveland
Bays. The resulting Vlamperd have emerged as a good natured horse breed with
graceful conduct and a stylish high stepping action. They can be used under
saddle or in harness. The name is derived from the Afrikaans for Flanders''
Horse - the country from which a number of Friesian stallions were later
exported to improve the breed.
A famous stallion, "
Vladimir Heavy Draft
Vladimir Heavy Draft horses come from Vladimir, in the
former USSR. They are a strong draft horse of medium size.
They were developed mainly from imported British horses;
consisting of the Suffolk Punch, Clydesdale and Shire horses. Some Ardennes and
Percheron horses were also used. In 1946, the Vladimir Heavy Draft was found to
be breeding sufficiently true to be type to consider it a true breed. This
quick-maturing, strong, heavy horse is popular for draft work. It is also used
for pulling Vladimir trokia sleighs. Today, they are bred widely.
Their head is large and long, with a Roman nose (convex
profile) or straight. Their jaw line is heavy. Their ears are pricked forward.
Their neck is
Vyatka horses have been in danger of extinction for several
years. They originated in the areas around Vyatka and Obva river basins of the
former USSR and have probably been influenced by both Klepper and Konik ponies,
while almost certainly being a descendant of the Tarpan.
They are extremely useful and versatile ponies and have
stamina, hardiness, and endurance. They are used for riding and driving and are
commonly used for pulling the traditional troikas; they are also useful for
light agricultural work. They have an excellent willing and honest temperament
which makes them easy to handle.
In appearance, they have a wide forehead, small, clean cut
head, set onto a strong, thick, fleshy neck.
Waler horses were given their name by the area in which they
came from, New South Wales in Australia. They are a result of being taken over
by the hands of eager settlers aiming to get a new life for themselves and
become more prosperous. Thoroughbreds, Clydesdales, Shires, Arabs, and English
Native Breeds were all introduced into this breed over time. The Indonesian
style horse, the Timor Pony became the most positive source for the Waler horse
to evolve. It was this cross breeding that helped aid in keeping the horse
breed strong and making it more agile. They began to become the ideal horse breed
for military use; they have an excellent stride, fast pace, and an immense
amount of energy. Even though they were thought of as great
Walkaloosa horses are a gaited horse with appaloosa
patterning. The gaited horse with appaloosa patterning has been documented in
history for hundreds, even thousands of years. Then in 1938 when the animals
who exhibited LP complex (the genetic factor that causes the spotting of the
Appaloosa Horse) were brought together to form the registry that became the
Appaloosa Horse Club, the gaited animals were lumped together with all
appaloosa patterned horses as the stock that became Registered Appaloosas.
Although the ApHC has years of crosses with many other
styles of horses that became the breeds of Quarter Horse, Arabian, and
Thoroughbred, the breeders shied way from including the naturally gaited
animals in thei
Welara ponies are a cross between Arabian horses and Welsh
ponys. They were developed by Lady Wentworth of Sussex, England. The sire was
Skowronek, a Polish bred. The mares were imported from Coed Coch Welsh stud
farm in North Wales. In 1981 a group of ranchers in southern California
established the breed. This cross had been done for years and the offspring were
thought to be exceptional. This registry was set up to recognize and benefit
the Welarea Pony. Welsh Cobs are also acceptable in the breeding program. The
registry has grown in the last number of years and include ponies worldwide.
Welara Ponies are beautiful and refined, gentle, quick, and
intelligent. They learn quickly and are versatile. Th
Welsh Pony and Cob
The Welsh Pony and Cob are a group of four
closely related horse breeds including both pony and cob types, which
originated in Wales in the United Kingdom. The four sections within the breed
society for the Welsh breeds are primarily distinguished by height, but also by
variations in type: the Welsh Mountain
Pony, the Welsh Pony, the
Welsh Pony of Cob Type, and the Welsh Cob. Welsh ponies and cobs are
known for their good temperament, hardiness, and free-moving gaits.
existed in Wales before 1600 BC, and a Welsh-type cob was known as early as the
Middle Ages. They were influenced by Arabian horses, and possibly also by
Thoroughbred and Hackney horses. In 1901, the first stud book for the Welsh
Westphalian, or Westfalen, horses are warmblood horses bredrnin the Westphalia region of western Germany. They are closely affiliated withrnthe state-owned stud farm of Warendorf, which it shares with the Rhinelander.rnSince World War II, the Westphalian horse has been bred to the same standard asrnthe other German warmbloods, and they are particularly famous as Olympic-levelrnshow jumpers and dressage horses. Next to the Hanoverian, the Westphalianrnstudbook has the largest breeding population of any warmblood in Germany.
The history of the Westphalian horse is linked with thernState Stud of Warendorf, which was founded in 1826 to serve the NorthrnRhine Westphalian region. The stud was built under the Prussian Stud dministrat
Wielkopolski horses originated in Central and Weste oland
in 1964. Their name comes from Wielkopolska ("Great Poland"), a
region in west central Poland centered on Poznan.
Wielkopolski horses were developed by crossing two now
extinct Polish breeds, the Pozan and the Mazury, so it is also referred to as
Mazursko-Poznanski horses. The Pozan, or Poznan, horse was developed in Poland.
This breed is extremely rare. These horses are known to be quite noteworthy. It
was bred at the studs at Posadowo, Racot, and Gogolewo. The Pozan was a mixture
of Arabian, Thoroughbred, Trakehner, and Hanoverian blood. It was a
middleweight farm worker, very versatile, used for riding and agricultural
work. The Mazury, also
Württemberger horses have excellent temperaments, combining
a sensible attitude with lively and free action. These traits may have
originally been due to their use as draft horse and Arabian blood. They are
tough and economical to feed when compared to Thoroughbreds.
The standard Württemberger stands around 16.1 hands high,
and is usually bay, chestnut, brown, or black in color. They have average-sized
heads with a straight profile, a good neck, and prominent withers. Their chest
is deep and the shoulders are sloping and well-muscled in most cases. The back
is long and straight and the croup sloping. They have muscular legs with hard,
Xilingol horses are a light horse from central Inner
Mongolia that is used both for riding and for draft purposes. In the 1960s,
they were developed by breeding the Russian Thoroughbred, Akhal-Teke, Sanhe,
and Chinese Mongolian, after which Kabarda and Don Breeding were introduced
into the breed. Xilingol horces stand at 15.2 hands high and come in all solid
Yakutian horse (also known as the Yakut horse, Yakut pony,
or simply the Yakut) are a rare native horse from the Siberian Sakha Republic
(or Yakutia) region. They impressive om their adaptation to the extreme cold
climate of Yakutia, including the ability to locate and graze on vegetation
that is under deep snow cover, and to survive without shelter in temperatures
that reach -70 °C (-94 °F).
Yakutian horse appear to have evolved from domesticated
horses brought with the Yakuts when they migrated to the area beginning in the
13th century, and are not descended from wild horses known to inhabit the area
in Neolithic times.
They are small, averaging 150 centimetres (14.3 hands) and
shares some outward
Yanqi ponies are found in China in north Xinjiang. Its
influences were the Mongolian, Don, and Orlov Trotter. Yanqi are used for
riding and light draft work.
Yili is a small horse from the north-western Xinjiang region
of China. They originated around 1900 from Russian breeds crossed with
Mongolian stock. Don, and Don-Thoroughbred crosses as well as Orlov Trotters
were used from 1936 on to improve the native horses. In 1963 the decision was
made to aim for a draft-type horse.
Yili horses are compact and harmonious in conformation with
a light head and straight profile. Their withers are well pronounced and their
back is short and strong, though their loin is long. Yili horses are normally
bay, chestnut, black or gray. Their legs
are clean with well-defined tendons; their front legs are correctly set and
well-muscled while their hind legs tend to be sickled and some
Yonaguni Horses (Yonaguni uma) are native to southwest
Japan, specifically Yonaguni Island. In 1939, when all local breeds began to be
improved to produce larger war horses, the Yonaguni on their remote island were
excluded from the plan, and the breed has been preserved. Still, due to the
mechanization of agriculture, their number progressively decreased. Today,
fewer than 200 are known to live in Japan.
Yonaguni Horses are small and considered to be pony height typically 11 hands
(44 inches, 112 cm).
Zanskari Ponies are bred in the high altitude Zanskar region
of Ladakh in eastern Jammu and Kashmir State of India. They are very similar to
Spiti ponies but they are more adaptable for higher altitude where they are
used as work horses.
They stand 120-140 cm in height, and weigh 320-450 kg. Their
coloration runs from usually grey to black, though some specimens are a
reddish, coppery color. They are able to carry heavy loads at high altitude and
are used for work. They are well built with prominent eyes, fine, long glossy
hair, and a long heavy tail.
Zansikari Ponies are strong and hard workers. They can
carry heavy loads at high altitudes. They are also used for pleasure riding and
showing, as well.
Zeeland horses, or Zeeuwse Trekpaard, are an old Dutch Breed
that was influential in the development of the Belgian and Dutch draft horses.
Dutch and Belgian carriage horses are very similar and their registries will
often take animals from the other country. It is thought that the breeding of
the Zeeland horse began early in the 17th century. Initially they were
developed not only as a carriage horse, but as a robust workhorse for wartime,
agriculture, and mining. In fact, a large portion of the Dutch economy depended
on the strength of these animals. They were highly prized animals well into the
20th century when mechanical transport became more effective. However, after
the Second World War, Zeeland horses became more of a pleas
Zemaituka horses (also known as Zamituka, Zemaichu Zhemaichu, Zhmudk, or Zhmud) comes from Lithuania and are a forest type that isrnpart of the Konik family.
They were bred in Lithuania since the 16th century and werernused by local people for farming and transportation. Throughout the years theyrnhave been influenced by various other exotic types and more recently in thern19th century Arabian stock was added. By the start of the 20th century therernwere two distinct types within the breed, one lighter and more refined (thoughrnfewer in numbers) and a heavier animal without the Arabian refinement.
Once popular, the breed was brought to the brink ofrnextinction by changing agricultural demands and World War II. In 2010, the
Zweibrücker, or Zweibrücken, are warmblooded horses that
were originally bred at the state-owned stud facilities in Zweibrücken, Germany
(one of Germany’s smaller state run facilities.) However since 1977 they have
been breed under the jurisdiction of the Horse Breeders'' Association of Rhineland-Palatinate-Saar
(PRPS). Modern Zweibrücker horses are elegant, large-framed, correct sport
horses with powerful, elastic gaits suitable for dressage, show jumping,
eventing, and combined driving.
The Zweibrücker stud program was founded in the mid-18th
century and populated with animals of noble bearing. These animals were
carefully crossed and further improved upon until 1801 when the farm was moved.
Napoleon saw seve