About Namib Desert Horses
Namib Desert Horses are a rare horse found in the Namib
Desert, of Namibia, Africa. They are most likely the only feral herd of horses
residing in Africa. Today, approximately 150 horses now live in 350 square
kilometres of the Namib Desert. The origin of these animals is unclear, though
several theories have been put forward. Genetic tests have been performed,
although none to date have completely verified their origin.
Horses are not native to Sub-Saharan Africa. The first
horses in sub-Saharan Africa were brought by the Dutch to the area of the Cape
of Good Hope in the 17th century. One theory says that a ship with horses on
board was run aground; the strongest horses were able to swim ashore to the
mouth of the Orange River and up to the Garub Plains, where the modern herds
There is also a theory that Namib Desert Horses are
descendents of the horses of the German Schutztruppe brought in during the 19th
century. Others say they are from Farm Duwisib (south of Maltahohe), owned by
Baron Hansheinrich von Wolf. Other sources suggest they came from imports in
the 20th century, between 1904 and the beginning of World War I, when the
Germans brought 30,000 horses into the area. Others suggest that some of these
horses' forebears escaped from the South African cavalry during World War I.
Research in the archives of pre-1914 horse breeding
operations found at Windhoek, combined with blood-typing studies suggests that
the animals descended from a gene pool of high-quality riding animals, as
opposed to work horses. A study released in 2005 suggests two likely source of
these horses' forebears. The first source was a stud farm near Kubub, owned by
Emil Kreplin, once mayor of Lüderitz from 1909 to 1914. In this period, Kreplin
bred both work horses and race horses. Photo albums from the stud show animals
with distinctive characteristics still seen in the Namib Desert Horse of today.
In addition, during World War I, at one point, the South African military was
advancing against the Schutztruppe, then located in the Namib near Aus, when
the pilot of a German biplane dropped bombs onto the South African camp near
Garub. In the process, some ordinance landed among a herd of 1,700 grazing
horses. These escaped army animals may have joined stock animals lost from
Kreplin's stud farm during the turmoil of the war. Horses in the area would
likely have congregated together at the few existing watering places in the Aus
Mountains and Garub.
Regardless of origins, after 100 years there were only 200
horses left in the deserts, but those that survived had adapted to the
conditions of the South Namib Desert.
They were originally forced to compete with domesticated
livestock turned loose by farmers onto the same ground where the horses grazed.
Due, in part, to this competition for limited forage, the horses nearly became
extinct. However, they were saved in part due to the efforts of Jan Coetzer,
employee of Consolidated Diamond Mine (CDM or DBCM), mining in a certain part
of Sperrgebiet. Coetzer was fond of horses and made sure they always had water
at the Garub windmill, put there as a permanent water tank by CDM. Later, the
horses' habitat was made part of Namib-Naukluft Park in the late 1980s. The
park was headed by Chris Eyre, head of the Nature Conservation.
Namib Desert Horses are athletic, muscular, clean limbed,
and are very strong boned. They are short backed with oblique shoulders and
good withers. The horses have the appearance of well bred riding horses in
head, skin, and coat.
They must eat while on the move. When grazing, they only
stay in one spot for a short time. They must cover considerable distances, as
much as 15 to 20 kilometres (9 to 12 mi) between the few existing water sources
and the best grazing sources. Due to scarcity of water, the Namib Desert horse
sometimes has to go without water for as long as thirty hours in summer and has
been known to go close to 72 hours without water during the winter. As a
consequence, Namib Desert Horses are considered very hardy. Due to the
distances they must travel and the scarcity of water, selection pressure is
severe, and weak animals do not survive.
The most common color of the Namib Desert horse is bay,
although there are a few chestnut horses. There are occasional individuals with
dorsal striping but no zebra stripes. No other colors have been recorded.
Namib Desert horses usually live in herds of up to ten
animals, consisting of one or, occasionally, two stallions with a few mares and
foals. These are the breeding groups. There are also 'bachelor' groups. The
breeding groups are led by a mare. The lead mare decides when to go, stop,
choose another grazing spot, and when to go to a water source.
There are few natural predators in the area, other than the
Hyena, which poses a threat primarily to foals. When a foal is threatened, it
is usually the mare that is the mother of the foal who defends her young. The
stallion will deal with threats to the entire herd, though in many cases, the
stallion primarily keeps bachelor animals away. There are few serious fights,
most are for show.