About Maremmana Cattle
Maremmana cattle area a descendent of the bos Taurus Macroceros, a
longhorned cattle that spread from the Eurasian steppes throughout Europe and
that, in Italy, can be traced as far back as the Etruscan era, as evinced by
the archeological findings from Caere (modern-day Cerveteri) and by the taurine
head from the Vetulonia museum. This cattle (the bos Silvestris described by
Pliny in his Natural History) was crossed with the Podolica cattle that reached
Italy following the barbarian invasions, giving rise to the Maremmana breed
which populated in enormous herds and has been a distinguishing feature of the
marshy malarial zones of the Maremma areas in Tuscany and Latium.
Maremmana breeders were exported from these areas to various
regions and countries. The Grand Dukes of Tuscany sent breeders from their
holdings to Hungary to reinvigorate the Pustza breed. With the progressive
reclamation of the marshlands, the breed underwent notable impetus between the
First and Second World Wars; thanks to intensive selection work. After World
War II a period marked by agricultural mechanization and farming reform, the
breed decreased greatly in number. Added to this was the negative impact of
replacement crossbreeding, which further decreased the number of bead as far as
purity is concerned. Despite these events, the situation has been changing over
the past few years. The Maremmana breed is reasserting its perfect suitability
to the habitat that shaped it, populating areas that bad previously been
off-limits. The breed is currently spread throughout the provinces of Grosseto,
Viterbo, Rome, Terni, Latina, Pisa, Leghorn and Arezzo. The interest aroused by
this breed has become even more intense lately; not only among certain breeders
in southern Italy, but also among foreign breeders, particularly in Spain and
Central America, who find that the Maremmana is the ideal means to make the
most of particularly harsh environments.
The National Association of Italian Beef-Cattle Breeders
(ANABIC - www.anabic.it) was established to promote and implement all types of
initiatives aimed towards improving, developing, and spreading the
autochthonous Italian cattle breeds: Marchigiana, Chianina, Romagnola,
Maremmana and Podolica. ANABIC, which came about by merging the prevously
existing individual National Breed Associations, has taken on their responsibilities
as far as selection is concerned and has set up a single National Herd Book for
the Italian beef-cattle breeds.
This breed is widespread in Tuscany and Latium and as about
5000 head enrolled in the Herd Book.
The Maremmana has a gray coat that is darker in males and
lighter-colored in females, with blank apical pigmentation.
As seen in other breeds of Podolica descent, calves are
wheat-colored at birth and then at around three months they turn to the
characteristic color of the breed. The horns are long and have typical
half-moon shape in the males, whereas the females have lyre-shaped horns.
The Maremmana has an impressive skeletal structure that
gives the adult a very solid and robust appearance. These very large sized
cattle have extremely solid legs, exceptionally hard hooves and, in general,
These very rustic cattle characterized by solidity, skeletal
strength and good muscle tone.
The cows have a well-shaped udder and an abundant supply of
milk that ensures daily weight gains of over 1 kg of the calves.
The Maremmana is an extraordinarily rustic and long-lived
breed that can reach an age of 15-16 years.
Calving is spontaneous and the calves weigh 30-40 kg at
birth. They reach a weight of 180-220 kgs by the age of six months, thus confirming
the cow's milk-producing capacity.
Photo and Content source: Agraria.org